May 15, 2013 | Comments Off
The prestigious F1000 Research journal has published yet another paper linking the controversial Morgellons disease (MD) to a spirochetal bacteria. Until recently, MD was widely believed in the medical community to be purely psychological in origin; however, this latest in a string of new publications strengthens the evidence that sufferers are anything but delusional.
Internist/Dermatologist Peter Mayne of Laurieton, NSW, Australia is the principal author of the latest scientific article on MD, Morgellons: a novel dermatological perspective as the multisystem infective disease borreliosis. The co-authors in this international team of collaborators include: Dermatologist Dr. John English from Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK; Psychiatrist Dr. Edward Kilbane from Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; Jennie Burke, Director of Australian Biologics, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Veterinary microbiologist Marianne J. Middelveen from Calgary, Alberta, Canada; and Internist Dr. Raphael B. Stricker from San Francisco, CA, USA.
The unusual fibers seen in skin lesions of patients with Morgellons Disease are considered the hallmark of the disease and believed by mainstream doctors to be deliberately implanted by patients. Earlier studies on these multicolored fibers showed that they were actually produced in the skin by the patients’ skin cells and composed of the skin proteins collagen and keratin.
These studies also found Borrelia spirochetes in the skin lesion. This bacteria is known for causing Lyme disease, thus suggesting that MD may actually be an unusual manifestation of Lyme disease.
This new paper by Mayne and his colleagues paints MD as a multisystem disorder and elaborates by examining an Australian family where three members simultaneously had symptoms of MD. Spirochetes were detected in the skin lesions of two members and one was identified by DNA sequencing as Borrelia garinii, a causative agent of Lyme disease in Europe and Asia.
February 28, 2012 | Comments Off
From Here :
The Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old Copper age individual, was discovered in 1991 on the Tisenjoch Pass in the Italian part of the Ötztal Alps. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the Iceman and show 100% concordance between the previously reported mitochondrial genome sequence and the consensus sequence generated from our genomic data. We present indications for recent common ancestry between the Iceman and present-day inhabitants of the Tyrrhenian Sea, that the Iceman probably had brown eyes, belonged to blood group O and was lactose intolerant. His genetic predisposition shows an increased risk for coronary heart disease and may have contributed to the development of previously reported vascular calcifications. Sequences corresponding to ~60% of the genome of Borrelia burgdorferi are indicative of the earliest human case of infection with the pathogen for Lyme borreliosis.
January 21, 2012 | Comments Off
Scroll down at the link below for some rare images of C. Pulmoni…..
From Here :
August 20, 2008 | Comments Off
Lifestyle Evolution in Alpha-Proteobacteria
Interestingly, species from a group called Ochrobactrum, which is most closely related to Brucella has been isolated from an astonishing number of different sources…..For example, Ochrobactrum is frequently isolated from Humans for which it is considered an opportunistic pathogen.
Moreover, two species have been shown to form associations with the nematode pathogen and insect – symbiont P. Luminescens in its nematode host…and another is a nitrogen fixing symbiont of Anaplasma……Ochrobactrum species have been described as free living, but since the majority of isolates are from patients, and since most environmental strains are from the Rhizosphere, this description may not be entirely correct…
Other related species of Alpha-Proteobacteria include :
Bartonella, Brucella, Ochrobactrum, Mesorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Sinorhizobium, Rhodopseudomonas, Bradyrhizobium, Gaulobacter, Rickettsia, Wolbachia, Anaplasma and Erlichia
August 19, 2008 | Comments Off
AFLP was used to analyze the genetic diversity among Ochrobactrum strains. AFLP patterns showed a great genomic variability that separated the samples into three distinct clusters.
Ochrobactrum intermedium was found to be closely related to Brucella abortus S99.
Ochrobactrum spp. are potential human pathogens. Ochrobactrum anthropi bacteremia is usually associated with contaminated intravenous lines in immunocompromised human patients, water sources, and environmental conditions in hospitals (1, 5, 8, 10, 11). O. anthropi isolates have also recently been obtained from other sources such as water, concrete, soils, termites, feces, activated sludges, oil spills, etc. Many of these isolates present interesting degradative properties not only towards multiple antibiotics but also towards herbicides, hemicellulose, anthracene, and other complex organic molecules including crude oil (2-5, 8, 12, 15, 17, 19, 25), displaying an opportunism that allows them to succeed in a wide range of environments.
August 19, 2008 | Comments Off
Bacteria naturally associated with the symbiont Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. akhurstii were isolated from the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica. Bacterial isolates distinct from P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii were obtained from 33% of the samples. Fourteen bacterial isolates, from nematodes collected from three different Caribbean islands, were characterized by conventional phenotypic tests, restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes (16SrDNAs).
Isolates were grouped into three genotypes, each one being associated with one Caribbean island. Phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis showed that the Photorhabdus-associated bacteria were closely related to Ochrobactrum anthropi for the group from Guadeloupe, and to Ochrobactrum intermedium for the two groups from the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. No pathogenicity of the Ochrobactrum spp. to the insects Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera) was detected.
Since Ochrobactrum spp. are considered as human opportunist pathogens, the mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes for biological control requires strict vigilance.
I immediately knew we had something very important here, and when I researched these special “gliding” bacteria, which move by gliding, perhaps like a snail, rather than by whipping flagella like the common blood-borne bacterial species, I realised we had hit mother-lobe.
Associated with the gliding motion is a unique lipid called capnine, a highly charged lipid, and one which is a strong inhibitor (antagonist) of VDR transcriptional activity.
It really doesn’t matter whether these gliding bacteria harm the body in any other way, by shutting down the AMPs they create an environment where a plethora of other bacteria and viral pathogens can weave their nasty ways upon the host.
From Here :
Theoretically, if one gets too alkaline, there will be as much malfunction as when someone gets too acidic. From a purely theoretical standpoint, one could stop metabolizing key nutrients if they are too alkaline. One could experience their blood not carrying oxygen if too alkaline. One certainly could fail to get hydrated or use water efficiently if too alkaline. These are theoretical possibilities, however, not empirical realities.
….Kirk was developing the market in the West for two types of GM cotton. Bt cotton was engineered with a gene from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. Organic farmers use the natural form of the bacterium as an insecticide, spraying it occasionally during times of high pest infestation. Monsanto engineers, however, isolated and then altered the gene that produces the Bt-toxin, and inserted it into the DNA of the cotton plant. Now every cell of their Bt cotton produces a toxic protein. The other variety was Roundup Ready® cotton. It contains another bacterial gene that enables the plant to survive an otherwise toxic dose of Monsanto’s Roundup® herbicide. Since the patent on Roundup’s main active ingredient, glyphosate, was due to expire in 2000, the company was planning to sell Roundup Ready seeds that were bundled with their Roundup herbicide, effectively extending their brand’s dominance in the herbicide market.
In the summer of 1997, Kirk spoke with a Monsanto scientist who was doing some tests on Roundup Ready cotton. Using a “Western blot” analysis, the scientist was able to identify different proteins by their molecular weight. He told Kirk that the GM cotton not only contained the intended protein produced by the Roundup Ready gene, but also extra proteins that were not normally produced in the plant. These unknown proteins had been created during the gene insertion process.
Gene insertion was done using a gene gun (particle bombardment). Kirk, who has an undergraduate degree in biochemistry, understood this to be “a kind of barbaric and messy method of genetic engineering, where you use a gun-like apparatus to bombard the plant tissue with genes that are wrapped around tiny gold particles.” He knew that particle bombardment can cause unpredictable changes and mutations in the DNA, which might result in new types of proteins.
The scientist dismissed these newly created proteins in the cotton plant as unimportant background noise, but Kirk wasn’t convinced. Proteins can have allergenic or toxic properties, but no one at Monsanto had done a safety assessment on them. “I was afraid at that time that some of these proteins may be toxic.” He was particularly concerned that the rogue proteins “might possibly lead to mad cow or some other prion-type diseases.”
…..This shape ruled out candida which has septate hyphae and the pathogens Mucor and rhizopus since they contained chitin.
That pretty much left me with the oomycetes family. I was not happy to learn this. The Irish potato famine pathogen p.infestans, downy mildew, pythiosis, and saprolegnia were among the family along with 500 plus other varieties.
The oomycetes family is a freshwater mold by name but has only recently been understood to be a protist which mimics the shape of mold. They do not like salt.
In aquarium fish, there is a disease that is called Ich. In larger fish it is called saprolegnia and infests salmon and a few other varieties. These are more of the oomycetes family. All members of oomycetes have motile zoospores.
To shorten up this long story I will tell you that the fibers I have on my body were hollow, cellulose, fluorescent and were blue, red, and whitish as well as crystalline. This led me down the rabbit hole to bioengineered fibers containing pathogens.
I next focused on oomycetes pathogens that were being bioengineered into pesticides, and Lagenidium Giganteum came on the scene as a bioengineered Mosquito larvacide. It was touted to be harmless to mammals. It was in the form of “mycelium and oospores” to quote the pan pesticides data base. Sounds like fibers to me. A common practice in making biofibers is to add fluorescent marker dyes. Luciferase and Green fluorescent protein could account for the color and fluorescence Of these strands.
A short time later it was documented that a number of dogs had died from an emerging new oomycetes pathogen called Lagenidium Giganteum.
It presented in cutaneous lesions like pythiosis and then went systemic.
I called an expert in the field named Leonel Mendoza and asked him some questions about this emergent new pathogen.
He said it presented much like pythiosis but was even faster to become systemic. I asked him about human implications land he said “only dogs have it.” Since the disease, pythiosis he compared it to was zoonotic, I really believed that it could possibly be a human pathogen as well.
Just last week I was made aware of the article written by Amy Grooters that indeed the harmless mosquito pathogen Lagenidium Giganteum was now a human disease. There was never a mention of the mosquito pesticide in any of the illness reports. That same University had an ongoing research project on campus as well making bioengineered pesticides. Of course,once they found that pathogen, they knew what to look for. Colleges get grants for research from the government. No mention of their approved pesticide was ever mentioned. Go figure-
Arlene’e note: Isn’t this a dead givaway?
The Morgellons organization as well as a study by NUSPA both show the largest number of cases of this unknown fiber disease are reported from Texas, Florida, and California. These were the same three states that were doing the most extensive spraying with Laginex. Targets of choice included rice fields and soybean fields in addition to wetlands and theme parks. California even had a stronger strain of their own for use. That has now been discontinued without explanation.
There is an ELISA test that is available from Pan American Labs to detect antibodies from both pythium and lagenidium.
Physicians don’t even know it exists. I have not been able to get one of these tests. It is very frustrating to be in an HMO.
Cellulose and glucans (sugar) comprise the structure of oomycetes.
Humans have no enzymes with which to break down this pathogen in the human body.
The cellulose glucan resudue is a natural food for many insects. Infestation with insects can also add to the pathogen as well as bacteria.
I know that the form of lagenidium used for this spray is bioengineered and the cells of many other creatures have been used to make this product durable and give it longevity. In its natural state, lagenidium is a frail and scarce form of oomycetes. In its bioengineered state the product stays active for about a month as used, and will go into a encysted dormant survival phase which lasts up to 7 years. God only knows what the other types of cells were that are a part of this pathogen.
I am doing very well on the holistic medication I am taking. It has been of great help to deal with this disease as a fresh water protist.
The Mycoxan is superior for being able to penetrate the cell walls and kill the pathogen, research xanthones. The candex is a must because it contains the enzymes, cellulase, and hemicellulase which is in fact the enzyme from another variety of mold that is know to break down the cellulose residue. The copper and Guaco address and protist aspect of this disease.
I must say it has been great getting rid of all 30+ nonhealing lesions on my body and well as feeling much better. I will continue my regimen for a while though. It may take a while to break down all encysted spores and get them out of my body. From time to time I am still getting white hardened exudate coming out of my skin. It is a process but so far so good.
The genus, Chlamydophilia, as obligate intracellular pathogens, induce chronic scarring in humans.
Chlamydia pneumoniae, a common cause of pneumonia, infects endothelial cells and circulating macrophages.
Evidence that C. pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen in chronic skin ulcers and other inflammatory skin conditions analogous to its role in atherosclerosis is reviewed……
The presence of viable C. pneumoniae in peripheral blood mononuclear cells suggests that C. pneumoniae may accompany these white blood cells to inflamed tissue sites and cause a secondary infection in the inflamed tissue.
Diseases where an association has been discovered between chronic Chlamydia infection of body fluids and/or tissues with several disease syndromes of previously unknown etiology in humans which respond to unique antichlamydial regimens include:
Multiple Sclerosisi (MSi)
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RAi)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Interstitial Cystitis (IC)
Autonomic nervous dysfunction (AND neural-mediated hypotension);
Pyoderma Gangrenosum (PG)
Chronic Fatigue (CF) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome(CFS).
Diseases where Cpn load has been associated where measured, and where treatment can create improvement in the primary condition:
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Beschet’s disease and
Graft versus host disease (graft rejection).
Diseases where Cpn may be associated as a secondary or primary factor:
Circulatory collapse and shock resulting from acute or chronic bacterial infection
Acute and chronic parasitic and/or infectious diseases from bacterial
Viral or fungal sources such as a HIV, AIDS (including symptoms of cachexia, autoimmune disorders, AIDS dementiai complex and infectionsi) can be treated as well as Wegners Granulomatosis.
Various inflammatory diseases, there are certain features of the inflammatory process that are generally agreed to be characteristic. These include fenestration of the microvasculature, leakage of the elements of blood into the interstitial spaces, and migration of leukocytes into the inflamed tissue. On a macroscopic level, this is usually accompanied by the familiar clinical signs of erythema, edema, tenderness (hyperalgesia), and pain. Inflammatory diseases, such as chronic inflammatory pathologies and vascular inflammatory pathologies, including:
Chronic inflammatory pathologies such as aneurysms
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease
Crohn’s diseasei and vascular inflammatory pathologies
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Coronary artery disease
Chronic or recurrent sore throat
Chronic vascular headaches (including migraines
Cluster headaches and tension headaches) and pneumonia when demonstrated to be pathogenically related to Chlamydia infection.
Treatable disorders when associated with Chlamydia infection also include but are not limited to Neurodegenerative diseases including
Demyelinating diseasessuch as multiple sclerosis and acute transverse myelitis;
Extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders such as lesions of the corticospinal system;
Disorders of the basal ganglia or cerebellar disorders;
Hyperkinetic movement disorders such as Huntington’s Chorea and senile chorea;
Drug-induced movement disorders such as those induced by drugs which block CNSi dopamine receptors;
Hypokinetic movement disorders
such as Parkinson’s disease;
Progressive supranucleo palsy;
Cerebellar and Spinocerebellar Disorders such as astructural lesions of the cerebellum;
Spinocerebellar degenerations (spinal ataxia)
Cerebellar cortical degenerations
Multiple systems degenerations (MencelDejerine-Thomas
Shi-Drager and Machado Joseph)); and systemic disorders (Refsum’s disease
Abetalipoprotemia, ataxia telangiectasia and mitochondrial multi-system disorder);
Demyelinating core disorders such as:
Acute transverse myelitis;
Disorders of the motor unit such as neurogenic muscular atrophies (anterior horn cell degeneration) such as
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Infantile spinal muscular atrophy and juvenile spinal muscular atrophy);
Down’s Syndrome in middle age;
Diffuse Lewy body disease; Senile Dementia of Lewy body type;
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
Hallerrorden-Spatz disease; and
Malignant pathologies involving tumors or other malignancies such as:
Leukemias (acute chronic myelocytic
chronic lymphocytic and/or myelodyspastic syndrome);
Lymphomas (Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas such as malignant lymphomas (Burkitt’s lymphoma or Mycosis fungoides));
Carcinomas (such as colon carcinoma) and metastases thereof;
Angiogenesis of the female reproductive tract
can also be treated when demonstrated by the diagnostic procedures described herein to be associated with Chlamydial infection.
An immunocompromised individual is generally defined as a person who exhibits an attenuated or reduced ability to mount a normal cellular or humoral defense to challenge by infectious agents
e.g., viruses, bacterial, fungi and protozoa. Persons considered immunocompromised include malnourished patients, patients undergoing surgery and bone narrow transplants, patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy, neutropenic patients, HIV-infected patients, trauma patients, burn patients, patients with chronic or resistant infections such as those resulting from myeloodysplastic syndrome, and the elderly, all of who may have weakened immunei systems. A protein malnourished individual is generally defined as a person who has a serum albumin level of less than about 3.2 grams per deciliter (g/dl) and/or unintentional weight loss greater than 10% of usual body weight.
The course of therapy, serological results and clinical improvements from compassionate antichlamydial therapy in patients diagnosed with the diseases indicated were observed and are reported in Example 5. The data provides evidence to establish that treatment of Chlamydia infection results in the serological and physical improvement of a disease state in the patient undergoing combination therapy. These observations were consistent among a variety of different diseases which fall within a generalized disease class.
Other Diseases of Unknown Etiology with New Evidence for a Chlamydia pneumoniae Etiology
Both C. trachomatis and C. psittaci exhibit a protean disease complex dependent on different serovars. One known basis for this diversity to date is the amino acid sequence of the MOMP. FIG. 1 shows a sequence alignment of various Chlamydia MOMPs. Note that the size and sequence are relatively homologous except for the four variable regions that are responsible for the serovar (serotype) basis of classification. Further, it has been discovered that C. pneumoniae infects blood vessel endothelial cells from which EBs are released in the blood stream. In addition, macrophages are known targets for C. pneumoniae and may serve as reservoirs and provide an additional mechanism of transmission. C. pneumoniae is thus able to spread throughout the human body, establishing infection in multiple sites and in multiple organ systems. Infected sites may exist for an extended period without inducing symptoms that are noticed by the patient or by an examining physician. Sequence variability of MOMPs or other chlamydial antigens may provide a basis for organ specificity while other chlamydial proteins, such as the 60K and 70K heat shock proteins or LPSi, may influence immune response.
C. psittaci and C. pecorum are known to cause a host of infections in economically significant animals. Thus, the teachings of this invention are relevant to animals. Throughout this application and for purposes of this invention, “patient” is intended to embrace both humans and animals. Virtually all rabbits and mice tested to date have PCRi signals for C. pneumoniae. They can be used as appropriate animal models for treatment using specific combination antibioticsi to improve therapy. (Banks et al., Ameri. J. of Obstetrics and Gynecology 138(7Pt2):952-956 (1980)); (Moazed et al., Am. J. Pathol. 148(2):667-676 (1996)); (Masson et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39(9):1959-1964 (1995)); (Patton et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37(1):8-13 (1993)); (Stephens et al., Infect. Immun. 35(2):680-684 (1982)); and (Fong et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 35(1):48-52 (1997)).
Coupled with these developments are the recently developed rabbit models of coronary artery disease, where rabbits exposed to C. pneumoniae subsequently develop arterial plaques similar to humans (Fong et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:48-52 (1997)). Most recently, a study at St. George’s Hospital in London found that roughly 3â„4 of 213 heart attach victims have significant levels of antibodies to C. pneumoniae antibody and that those that have such antibodies achieve significantly lower rates of further adverse cardiac events when treated with antibiotics (Gupta et al., Circulation 95:404-407 (1997)). Taken together, these three pieces of evidence (the bacteria found in diseased tissue, inoculation with the bacteria causes diseases, and treating for the bacteria mitigates disease) make a case for a causal connection.
From Here :
With two major international airports and airplanes flying overhead day and night, it’s no surprise that London has one of the busiest flight paths anywhere in the world.
What might surprise you, though, is that those zigzag white lines across the sky, or contrails, as they’re known, might be having an adverse effect on London’s weather.
Inside Out investigates contrails and whether they could be bad for the capital’s climate….
How quaint …how, ermm, 20th Century…….ha ha ha ha ha…….. Contrails ?????….Reality Check Here…
Genetics, the battle horse of modern oncology, is about to give up the ghost, together with its endless explanations based on enzymatic and receptor processes. Actually, it has already failed â€“ it is just that no one can think of anything else that can take its place. The consequence of the oncological establishmentâ€™s inability to admit the failure of this line of research, which is at this point scientifically indefensible, is the continuous waste of a great quantity of economic, scientific and human resources.
What road to take? Where to look for those minimal logical elements that can shed light on the ignorance that pervades oncology?
Many thinkers â€“ especially biologists â€“ believe that by applying the Darwinian theory to the evolution of living beings, it may be possible to progress down a new path when it comes to the so-called degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiopathies, and mental illness. According to this line of thought, these diseases are not attributable to environmental or genetic factors as is presently believed, but to infections.
Therefore, the answer to the question of what causes a degenerative disease can be found in the discipline that more than anything else has given luster to medicine, and which has promoted medicine from a mere practice to a science, that is microbiology.
It is in fact clear that, with the exception of bacteriology, the state of knowledge in this field of research is still quite limited, especially when it comes to viruses, sub-viruses and fungi, whose pathogenic valence, unfortunately, is little known.
It is true that scholars have given more attention to these biological entities recently, and in fact, the concept of â€œinnocuous co-existenceâ€ attributed to many parasites of the body has begun to be questioned with much greater conviction. More determination is needed, however, in this process of the revision of microbiology so that the close connection between micro-organisms and degenerative diseases can be clarified.
I believe that it is by focusing on just one of these shadowy areas â€“ on mycology, the realm of fungi â€“ that it will become possible to discover the correct answers to questions concerning the problem of tumors.
Much evidence indicates that this is the road to take. The analogy between psoriasis â€“ an incurable disease of the skin that many treat as fungus â€“ and tumors, which are also an incurable disease of the organism, the symptomatological overlapping of systemic candidosis and cancer, and the strict genetic relationship between mycetes and neoplastic masses make this clear. These are all elements that support and confirm the point of view that all types of cancer, as happens in the vegetal world, are caused by a fungus.
A fungus infection â€“ that of the Candida species â€“ could supply the explanation for why a tumor occurs, and it is in this direction that research should move in the attempt to solve the problem of cancer once and for all.
………The other man attacked was the world’s leading lectins and plant genetic modification expert, UK-based Arpad Pusztai. He was vilified and fired from his research position at Scotland’s Rowett Research Institute for publishing industry-unfriendly data he was commissioned to produce on the safety of GMO foods.
His Rowett Research study was the first ever independent one conducted on them anywhere. He undertook it believing in their promise but became alarmed by his findings. The Clinton and Blair governments were determined to suppress them because Washington was spending billions promoting GMO crops and a future biotech revolution. It wasn’t about to let even the world’s foremost expert in the field derail the effort. His results were startling and consider the implications for humans eating genetically engineered foods.
Rats fed GMO potatoes had smaller livers, hearts, testicles and brains, damaged immune systems, and showed structural changes in their white blood cells making them more vulnerable to infection and disease compared to other rats fed non-GMO potatoes. It got worse. Thymus and spleen damage showed up; enlarged tissues, including the pancreas and intestines; and there were cases of liver atrophy as well as significant proliferation of stomach and intestines cells that could be a sign of greater future risk of cancer. Equally alarming – this all happened after 10 days of testing, and the changes persisted after 110 days that’s the human equivalent of 10 years.
GM foods today saturate our diet. Over 80% of all supermarket processed foods contain them. Others include grains like rice, corn and wheat; legumes like soybeans and soy products; vegetable oils; soft drinks; salad dressings; vegetables and fruits; dairy products including eggs; meat and other animal products; and even infant formula plus a vast array of hidden additives and ingredients in processed foods (like in tomato sauce, ice cream and peanut butter). They’re unrevealed to consumers because labeling is prohibited yet the more of them we eat, the greater the potential threat to our health.
Based on the structures that we observed microscopically from a number of Morgellons patients and the clinical profiles, we have reasons to believe that this organism is not a virus or bacteria. We hypothesize that this organism is a more complex fungus, algae or a novel parasite. The fibers are most likely feeding structures as they have strong resemblance to aerial hyphae observed in many fungal species. Our research is focused on genetic investigations of the DNA in lesions and fibers. Our experiments will include assays that attempt to amplify any bacterial sequences and identify them by DNA sequencing if present to rule out or confirm that the organism is a bacteria as other investigators have hypothesized.
From Here :
Inflammation is a key component of the imune system.
This paper attempts to present a non-analytical holistic view.
Cryptostrongylus Pulmoni is a nematode, or roundworm, that is very small and not visible to the naked eye.
The bright red male measures only 200 to 350 microns in length, while the female is a little less than one millimeter long and apparently blue in appearance.
Its name means hidden lungworm because it has been recovered from upper respiratory sputum coughed up from the lung of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients.
The taxonomic status of the 3 species of Onchocerca currently recognized in the USA, and other previously recognized species, is under debate. O cervicalis is found in the ligamentum nuchae and possibly other sites in Equidae.
In cattle, O gutturosa locates in the ligamentum nuchae, and O lienalis in the gastrosplenic ligament.
Adults are associated with connective tissues and are very thin and 3-60 cm long.
Microfilariae are found in the dermis and on rare occasions circulating in peripheral blood.
The microfilariae lack a sheath and are 200-250 Âµm long with a short, sharply pointed tail. Culicoides spp are the intermediate hosts for O cervicalis , and Simulium spp for O gutturosa and O lienalis .
…..Now for more specifics. There are two forms that require immediate identification as to their physical nature, function and purpose. The first of these is a sub-micron repeating filament that is enclosed within a larger bounding filament. The sub-micron filaments can only be seen with fairly advanced microscopy; the bounding filament is visible to the naked eye in many cases. The second form is a circular, spherical or oblate structure that also is measuring at the micron to sub-micron level. The best estimate for the size of this structure is currently on the order of 0.5 to 0.7 microns. Size, as will be seen, is a very important factor in any identification process…..
More Images From Here :
More Images Here :
Melanin production provides survival advantages to myriad microbes in the environment and during infection of diverse hosts.
There is conclusive evidence that many types of drugs, including antimicrobial drugs, bind to melanin.
In particular, the melanization of certain fungi is associated with reduced susceptibilities to polyene and echinocandin-type drugs in vitro.
Dematiaceous fungi are darkly pigmented molds that constitutively produce melanin during infection and are extremely difficult to treat with antifungal drugs.
Although the clinical relevance is not clear, antifungal susceptibility testing for filamentous fungi has recently been standardized. Amphotericin B has good activity against most clinically important dematiaceous fungi in vitro, but clinical resistance is not uncommon. Scedosporium prolificans and Scopulariopsis brumptii are consistently resistant to amphotericin B in vitro; and occasional resistance to this drug is reported in several other species, including Chaetomium spp., Curvularia spp., Phialemonium spp., and Exophiala spp.
Echinocandins are not clinically useful against these fungi. The inefficacies of the echinocandins against these fungi and the relative resistance of these fungi to amphotericin B may be associated with the dense production of melanin in these fungi. The broadest in vitro activity against dematiaceous fungi is achieved with azoles .
In this regard, we note that azoles are not bound by melanin.
Thirty or more microfilariae 0.70 -1.32mm were recovered from the homocele of an engorged adult tick I. danmmini that was collected form vegetation on shelter Island New York.
Of approximately 500 collected only 1 other was similarly infected.
Outstanding features in addition to size were absence of cephalic space and the presence nuclei in 2/3 irregular rows extending to the end of a blunt tail.
December 20, 2007 | Leave a Comment
Dr Harvey Writes :
Dear BMJ Editor,
One notes with interest…and dismay… the number of responses to the Lyme Wars topic thirty years after Steere published the Lyme hypothesis. There should be little residual conflict given that the birth of critical thinking began centuries ago with the Renaissance via many European and UK thinkers, including physician William Harvey (reference intended). The arguments now appearing as BMJ Lyme Wars letters surprisingly ignore the insight shift of Harvey Padua University schoolmate, Nicolaus Copernicus. Although the essence of De motu cordis was that truth lay in the reality at hand, a century earlier Copernicus first made an even more fundamental point, that co-variants do not prove cause-and-effect. Unexpectedly, both concepts are ignored so frequently in the Lyme Wars thread that collectively they illustrate what has happened to recent scientific thinking and immediately clarify how such arguments can occur. Truth seems to lie in the simplest concepts, as Einstein had hoped. Here, brought to a grade school level is the concept that has invalidated most Borreliosis research over the past three decades: The finding of Borrelia in a chronically ill human does not prove Borrelia generated the illness. No one has ever elucidated the mechanism by which Borrelia exerts its claimed pathophysiology.
When Willie Burgdorfer first encountered Borrelia (burgdorferi sensu lato) in acutely ill New England patients, the correlation was initially made. Subsequently, it was verified numerous times in endemic areas of the planet. Ultimately, the numbers reached mathematically validity and in time revealed a zoonosis cycle bridged by at least one arthropod vector. This correlation came from Epidemiology devoid of a pathologic mechanism, but was strong enough to make the case for an acute illness. This method, as weak as it was, gave rise to the present US CDC case criteria for Lyme disease as an acute, readily treatable illness with predictable (but not well understood) signs and symptoms. What then is the dilemma where acute Lyme disease and chronic Lyme disease are juxtaposed in a mortal face-off? Enter semantics.
This dilemma did not occur in a vacuum. Outside the boundary of a relatively limited acute zoonosis, there must exist yet another illness; an illness so serious and pervasive that many astute clinicians and a few scientists would go to any means to give credibility to that illness. An NLM search taking only seconds will indeed uncover a veritable ocean of persistently ill humans with these similar characteristics: Their illness is chronic, multi-systemic, unpredictably varied, possibly life shortening, unsolved and appropriately kept outside the taxonomy of proven illnesses. The number of assigned labels is extraordinarily large, however, and vastly more inclusive than chronic Lyme disease is thought to be. If such an illness exists it necessarily would engender extreme clinical passion. And given no support by traditional science, labels would be found in large numbers, with similar descriptors, and would emerge as historical counterparts. This phenomenon has indeed occurred. Awareness began to appear between 1970-1980. New semantic identifiers such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia syndrome…and since the mid- 1980s, chronic Lyme diseaseâ€¦are only three.[3-13] If we follow the theme of similar intermittent laboratory abnormalities, basic abnormal physical findings and fundamental chronic symptoms, at least two-dozen other groups such as Bannwarthâ€™s syndrome, Ekbom syndrome, Aspergerâ€™s syndrome and others emerge.[14-23]
A short foray into the universe of illness labels above reveals similar wars underway since 1980: Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) VS chronic Fibromyalgia syndrome (Fibromyalgia); CFS VS chronic Lyme disease (Lyme); Lyme and CFS VS Gulf War Syndrome (GWS) are among the obvious. Clinicians fortunate enough to encounter this larger chronically ill group outside of New England (where vector prevalence of Borrelia is high) were not tempted by Borrelia as a generator of chronic illness.[24-29] Rather, their semantic choices emerged from such random events as participation in recent wars, or travel to high-humidity regions where fungi are rampant.
In summary, Lyme Wars if followed to its root, is a failure of our medical education system to insist on teaching scientific method, and beginning that with the foundation of all truth: language (semantics). Something did likely occur in the world of human disease some 30 years ago as these wars attest to. It could be attributed to the population explosion, global warming, excess computer use, or even larger numbers of vaccines. But, I choose to wait until science shows us the mechanism rather than join the twenty first centurys trust in celebrity (trust papers from the most notable journals or be pulled into the current popular mindset) rather than face the factual illness only where it exists: the patient. Even medical wars are cognitive constructs, generated by the human mind. If we are ever to get the term evidence based medicine correct, this is our wake up call. The evidence as Harvey showed us in the sixteenth century is in the ill (or deceased) human, not textual material often outdated before it reaches print. (812 words)
1. Steere, A.C., J.A. Hardin, and S.E. Malawista, Erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme arthritis: cryoimmunoglobulins and clinical activity of skin and joints. Science, 1977. 196(4294): p. 1121-2.
2. Steere, A.C., et al., Lyme arthritis: an epidemic of oligoarticular arthritis in children and adults in three connecticut communities. Arthritis Rheum, 1977. 20(1): p. 7-17.
3. Eidelman, D., Fatigue: towards an analysis and a unified definition. Med Hypotheses, 1980. 6(5): p. 517-26.
4. Ballow, M., et al., Familial chronic mononucleosis. Ann Intern Med, 1982. 97(6): p. 821-5.
5. Uretsky, B.F., Does mitral valve prolapse cause nonspecific symptoms? Int J Cardiol, 1982. 1(5-6): p. 435-42.
6. DuBois, R.E., et al., Chronic mononucleosis syndrome. South Med J, 1984. 77(11): p. 1376-82.
7. Yunus, M.B., Primary fibromyalgia syndrome: current concepts. Compr Ther, 1984. 10(8): p. 21-8.
8. Caligiuri, M., et al., Phenotypic and functional deficiency of natural killer cells in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Immunol, 1987. 139(10): p. 3306-13.
9. Byrne, E. and I. Trounce, Chronic fatigue and myalgia syndrome: mitochondrial and glycolytic studies in skeletal muscle. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 1987. 50(6): p. 743-6.
10. McLaughlin, T.P., et al., Chronic arthritis of the knee in Lyme disease. Review of the literature and report of two cases treated by synovectomy. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1986. 68(7): p. 1057-61.
11. Kriuchechnikov, V.N., [Chronic migrant erythema or Lyme disease--a new tick-borne Spirochaetales infection]. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol, 1985(9): p. 101-9.
12. Eschard, J.P., et al., [Lyme disease without arthritis: presence of antiBorrelia burgdorferi antibodies in meningoradiculitis following chronic erythema migrans]. Presse Med, 1985. 14(28): p. 1517-8.
13. Ryberg, B. and I. Thelin, [Lyme disease in Sweden. A patient with arthralgia associated with chronic erythema migrans]. Lakartidningen, 1984. 81(30-31): p. 2758-60.
14. Calabresi, P.A., et al., Ekbom’s syndrome: lipomas, ataxia, and neuropathy with MERRF. Muscle Nerve, 1994. 17(8): p. 943-5.
15. Sojka, E. and Z. Afeltowicz, [Ekbom's syndrome in a patient with mitral valve disease and subacute endocarditis]. Pol Tyg Lek, 1978. 33(17): p. 691-2.
16. Harriman, D.G., D. Taverner, and A.L. Woolf, Ekbom’s syndrome and burning paraesthesiae. A biopsy study by vital staining and electron microscopy of the intramuscular innervation with a note on age changes in motor nerve endings in distal muscles. Brain, 1970. 93(2): p. 393-406.
17. Fox, W.B., Ekbom’s syndrome. J Am Inst Homeopath, 1967. 60(1): p. 26.
18. Roelcke, U., et al., Untreated neuroborreliosis: Bannwarth’s syndrome evolving into acute schizophrenia-like psychosis. A case report. J Neurol, 1992. 239(3): p. 129-31.
19. Henriksson, A., et al., Immunoglobulin abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid and blood over the course of lymphocytic meningoradiculitis (Bannwarth’s syndrome). Ann Neurol, 1986. 20(3): p. 337-45.
20. Tantam, D., Asperger’s syndrome. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 1988. 29(3): p. 245-55.
21. Bowman, E.P., Asperger’s syndrome and autism: the case for a connection. Br J Psychiatry, 1988. 152: p. 377-82.
22. Wing, L., Clarification on Asperger’s syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord, 1986. 16(4): p. 513-5.
23. Kerbeshian, J. and L. Burd, Asperger’s syndrome and Tourette syndrome: the case of the pinball wizard. Br J Psychiatry, 1986. 148: p. 731-6.
24. Harvey, W.T. and P. Salvato, “Lyme disease”: ancient engine of an unrecognized Borreliosis pandemic? Medical Hypotheses, 2003. 60(5): p. 742 -759.
25. Burgdorfer, W., Discovery of the Lyme disease spirochete and its relation to tick vectors. Yale J Biol Med, 1984. 57(4): p. 515-20.
26. Pokorny, P., [Incidence of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in arthropods (Arthropoda) and antibodies in vertebrates (Vertebrata)]. Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol, 1989. 38(1): p. 52-60.
27. Burgdorfer, W., Vector/host relationships of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Rheum Dis Clin North Am, 1989. 15(4): p. 775-87.
28. Burgdorfer, W., et al., Relationship of Borrelia burgdorferi to its arthropod vectors. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl, 1991. 77: p. 35-40.
29. Baranton, G., N. Marti Ras, and D. Postic, [Borrelia burgdorferi, taxonomy, pathogenicity and spread]. Ann Med Interne (Paris), 1998. 149(7): p. 455-8.
30. Williamson, P.K. and J.J. Calabro, Lyme disease–a review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum, 1984. 13(3): p. 229-34.
31. Berger, B.W., O.J. Clemmensen, and A.B. Ackerman, Lyme disease is a spirochetosis. A review of the disease and evidence for its cause. Am J Dermatopathol, 1983. 5(2): p. 111-24.
Competing interests: None declared.
From the same thread :
Lyme Disease – Another Perspective of a Scientist-Patient
As a former HCV researcher and current Lyme patient, I am always surprised by new articles on the “Lyme Wars,” though I think I am beginning to detect a pattern in them. These articles are usually opinion pieces, and they often manage to gloss over most of the really interesting microbiology, both new and old, that’s been done on spirochetal infections. I can never understand why that is, but then scientists are always surprised when basic science is ignored for political reasons, which has been happening in the biological, climatological, and evolutionary fields lately. I suspect in the case of Lyme disease that dismissing the current science, as Ms. Tonks does by characterizing Lyme as “a simple bacterial infection”, has more to do with real estate values than it does with moral ones.
The Essential Treatment is basically
Body weight in pounds/10 = total daily consumption in grams, so
1 gram of Salt, and
1 gram of Vitamin C
for each 10 pounds of body weight.
Use pure salt (sodium chloride) without any additives such as
aluminum silica, or iodine
If you use powdered salt or Vitamin C be aware that
1 teaspoon (tsp) = 5 grams, thus
1 tablespoon (tbs) = 15 grams.
One should space out these into three or more doses each day.
For example, a 150 pound individual would swallow 15 grams
of each in total as
5 grams of each in the morning,
5 grams of each at midday and
5 grams of each in the evening.
Total daily consumption should not exceed
18 grams of each per day.
Drink lots of water.
High doses can be very hard on the stomach.
Experiment; start with lower doses, such as
3 grams each 5 times a day
to get your daily total.
Again, drink plenty of water.
Â© 2006-2007 lymephotos.com
The layperson’s guide to antibiotics.
What they are, how they work, when they will not work,
Extended information and links.
December 18, 2007 | Leave a Comment
While antimicrobial resistance predates the clinical use of antimicrobials, it is clear that medical and prescribing practices over the past half-century have encouraged resistance development and spread in human (and animal)pathogens, and thus compromised the use of many antimicrobials in the treatment of infectious diseases.
Despite the current focus on Gram-positive pathogens and mycobacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, particularly multiple antibiotic-resistant organisms, remain a major threat in infectious disease treatment.
In an era of decreasing microbial susceptibility to currently available antimicrobials, there is a pressing need to develop new agents and therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Gram-negative infectious diseases.
This review defines the problem of multidrug resistance in important Gram-negative human pathogens, and describes recent approaches to overcoming multidrug resistance in these organisms.
December 18, 2007 | Leave a Comment
The consistent finding of numerous unexpected biologic agents at atypically high levels (some thought to be non-pathogens, others definitely pathogenic) strongly supports that an immune deficiency state exists in Morgellons patients.
Agents identified serologically include many zoonoses (intermittently and in low numbers) such as Borrelia (at least five species) and Babesia, a single recently found gram negative bacterium, most herpes viruses, some strongly activated such as VZV and HHV-6, several mycology species (esp. Tineas), and particularly in those we have labeled Morgellons patients, parasites (species will be elaborated following PCR sequencing).
In May 2007, Archives of Environmental Toxicology and Contamination published one of the first studies linking a commercialized GE crop to health problems in mammals.
The study, authored by researchers from the Committee for Independent Research and Information on Genetic Engineering (ComitÃ© de Recherche et d’Information IndÃ©pendantes sur le GÃ©nie GÃ©nÃ©tique-CRIIGen) re-analyzed safety tests from rat-feeding trials of a GE corn submitted by Monsanto to European regulatory authorities.
Despite Monsantoâ€™s claim that the feeding trials showed no significant differences between the GE corn and conventional corn, the independentre-analysis of the results found abnormalities in the kidneys and liver as well asdifferences in growth rates between the two groups.Monsanto corn MON 863 is geneticallyengineered to produce an insecticide providing the plant with resistance to Western and Northern corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.), pests endemic to Eastern and Central North America.
It belongs to a category of GE crops called Bt (as in Bt corn), because it produces a toxin similar to a proteinâ€”Cry3b1â€”produced by the natural bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Bt bacteria in small doses acts as a natural insecticide and has been used for decades by organic farmers to deal with sporadic infestations of certain agricultural pests. Monsanto hoped to confer these properties of resistance to MON863.
Genes to produce the insecticidal protein Cry3b1 as well as a gene conferring antibiotic resistance were introduced to a line of conventional (i.e., non-GE) corn, A634, by means of particle bombardment. MON863 differs from other Bt corn marketed in Canada (MON 810, Bt 11, Bt 176) in that these earlier varieties produced a slightly different toxin which targeted the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). MON863 was approved for unconfined release in Canada in March 2003.
This means that it can be grown anywhere in Canada where corn is normally grown.
Health Canada approved MON863 for human consumption two weeks later.
By the time MON863 received approval in Canada, warning signs were appearing across the Atlantic. In September 2002, experts at the French Genetic Engineering Commission began raising critical questions regarding the test data derived from Monsantoâ€™s rat feeding study with MON863. German authorities similarly published warnings that the Cry3b1 protein possesses similarities to other toxins which were of high relevance to human health.
For the next two years, Greenpeace worked with independent researchers and activists in Europe to obtain the release of the original test studies so that they could be submitted to
independent analysis by a transparent body. Although Monsanto sought to maintain the results of the feeding trials as confidential, German authorities finally released the documents to Greenpeace in 2005.
Greenpeace published thesefindings and turned them over to CRIIGen for independent analysis. The results of the CRIIGen analysis were published in the Arizona-based, peer-reviewed
scientific journal Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology in May 2007.
The bacterium Pseudomonas flourescens has been modified with a number of different Cry delta-endotoxin genes from different subspecies of Bacillus thruingiensis (Bt)……
The Pseudomonas family are also a factor to consider in any discussion on Morgellon’s Disease.
Briefly, this is my experience.
I developed a nasty ear infection after swimming in a river in South West France in the Summer of 1997.
It took 2 years to clear the mess, and it moved from ear to ear, despite anti-biotics.
Since then, I have had ear problems with regularity and I found out recently, that the infection was Pseudomonas.sp.
However, I do not know which strain.
I do know though, that ear infections are a common problem for Morgellon’s sufferers.
Pseudomonads are important in the balance of nature and also in the economy of human affairs.
Pseudomonads are globally active in aerobic decomposition and biodegradation, and hence, they play a key role in the carbon cycle.
Pseudomonas species are renowned for their abilities to degrade compounds which are highly refractory to other organisms, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, insecticides and other environmental pollutants.
Apparently, the only organic compounds that these pseudomonads can’t attack are teflon, styrofoam and one-carbon organic compounds (methane, methanol, formaldehyde, etc.).
Pseudomonads are also a regular component of microbial food spoilage in the field, in the market place, and in the home.
Mucoid strains have a slime layer made up of alginate (a repeating exopolysaccharide of ManUA and GlcUA) that forms the matrix of the Pseudomonas biofilm.
Diseases of keratinized areas of humans and animals
Hydrolysis of keratin by keratinases is an important aspect of fungal pathogenesis.
For dermatophytes to induce active infection, the arthroconidia lodging on the skin surface must be able to penetrate the stratum corneum.
According to the in vitro model presented by Aljabre et al. the pattern of dermatophyte growth on stratum corneum occurs in three stages, germination of arthroconidia, penetration of stratum corneum followed by formation of arthroconidia.
If the arthroconidia have a fastidious requirement for germination, then the chances for successful penetration and invasion of the skin tissues are drastically reduced. T. mentagrophytes is not fastidious and readily germinates in the presence of high humidity and nutrients provided by the stratum corneum.
This probably explains why fungal skin infections are higher in warm and humid conditions.
Hashimoto and Blumenthal found that activating conidia of T. mentagrophytes by holding them in distilled water at 28Â°C for 24h resulted in a significant increase in germination.
Epidemiologically this indicates that activated arthroconidia are highly infectious for normally hydrated skin.
From Here :
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GOLD COMPOUNDS
The implication of microbial infection as a causative agent in arthritis was the stimulus for the investigation of the antimicrobial properties of gold complexes.
The early work by Robert Koch, demonstrated, that gold compounds were active against the TB bacillus.
Subsequent extensive work in the 1930’s and 1940’s demonstrated that a variety of gold compounds were active against a broad spectrum of microorganisms.
Activity in in vitro test systems was demonstrated against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria,a number of strains of mycoplasma, and the protozoan Leishmania.
Gold complexes were able to modify the course of a number of in vivo infections in a variety of animal hosts.
There are indications that the anti-arthritic gold complexes may suppress H. pylori infections in the gastric mucosa,a causative agent for peptic ulcers, and that gold phosphine complexes in vitro are cytocidal towards Pseudomonas putida.
Frankincense resin is distilled by steam or CO2 to extract its precious essential oil, which is used extensively in modern aromatherapy.
This oil is rejuvenating to the skin, treating acne, bacterial and fungal infections, and to treat wounds and scars. Thus, it is used in cosmetics, soaps, and perfumes.
The University of Munich found the anti-inflammatory properties of frankincense very effective as a treatment for joint pain and arthritis.
The famous eleventh-century Arabian physician, Avicenna, recommended its cooling effects as a remedy for infections and illnesses that increase the body’s temperature. Greek and Roman physicians used Frankincense in the treatment of a great variety of diseases. Frankincense remedies appear in the Syriac Book of Medicine, ancient Muslim texts, and in Ayurvedic and Chinese medical writings.
Frankincense is also a natural insecticide and was used in ancient Egypt to fumigate wheat silos and repel wheat moths.
In Arabia, the smoke of burning frankincense resin is used to repel mosquitoes and sand flies. Researchers have found that burning frankincense indoors improves the acoustic properties of the room. Dioscorides described how the bark of the tree was put into water to attract fish into nets and traps.
In ancient Egypt the resin was a key ingredient for embalming their dead.
Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Fasciola (a liver fluke that infects sheep, goats, and cattle), for which humans act as an accidental host.
Human fascioliasis is becoming an increasingly important problem in many countries, including Egypt, with increasing frequency in many governorates.
Outbreaks have occurred in other countries.
Myrrh is an oleo gum resin obtained from the stem of Commiphora molmol (family Burseraceae), a tree that grows innortheast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.
The drug is chiefly collected in Somalia.
Much of the resin is obtained by collecting it from spontaneous exudation from the cracks and fissures that commonly form in the plantâ€™s bark. Myrrh contains 7â€“17% volatile oil, 25â€“40% resin, 57â€“61% gum, and 3â€“4% impurities. Myrrh is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for food use (21 Code of Federal Registrationâ€“CFR 172.510) and was given generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status asa flavor ingredient (No. 2765) by the Flavor Extract Manufacturerâ€™s Association (FEMA).12,13 The council of Europe included myrrh in the list of plants and parts thereof that are acceptablefor use in foods.
Because drugs that act on schistosomiasis may also act on other parasites, and because myrrh was found to be effective in the treatment of schistosomiasis (with a high cure rate and without side effects, we decided to try a myrrh-derived drug on patients with fascioliasis to see if it proved beneficial.
The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a new fasciolicide that may offer a new promising approach in the treatment of fascioliasis.
NEUROWORMÂ© is a industrial-design neuro-nematode.
The original link to this page is now dead. More Here :
There are two sexes: a self-fertilizing hermaphrodite and a male. The adult essentially comprises a tube, the exterior cuticle, containing two smaller tubes, the pharynx and gut, and the reproductive system. Most of the volume of the worm-implantat is taken up by the reproductive system. Of the 324 somatic cells of the hermaphrodite some 300 are neurons. Neural structures include a battery of sense organs in the head which mediate responses to taste, smell, temperature, touch and do programmed medical jobs.
Keratin is one of the most abundant animal proteins on earth as it forms a part of the exoskeleton of reptiles, birds and mammals.
Among the microbes that cycle this protein in nature,keratinophilic fungi are very common and the most diverse.
During the course of evolution, many of the soil-associated keratinophilic fungi have adopted a pathogenic life cycle and are now potential agents of fungal diseases in humans and animals.
With more here from Dr Fungus on the organisms that infect human hair, skin and nails.
The Tinea family are keratin degraders. Tinea’s are mentioned by the Morgellons Research Foundation as being a constituent part of Morgellons disease.
….The consistent finding of numerous unexpected biologic agents at atypically high levels (some thought to be non-pathogens, others definitely pathogenic) strongly supports that an immune deficiency state exists in Morgellons patients. Agents identified serologically include many zoonoses (intermittently and in low numbers) such as Borrelia (at least five species) and Babesia, a single recently found gram negative bacterium, most herpes viruses, some strongly activated such as VZV and HHV-6, several mycology species (esp. Tineas), and particularly in those we have labeled Morgellons patients, parasites (species will be elaborated following PCR sequencing).
From Here :
Globally, Frogs are threatened with un-natural extinction by a Keratin degrading fungus.
From Here :
A very interesting Venezuelan site, with extraordinary images, used to illustrate the similarity between some tropical diseases and new emerging global illness.
A young man from the Venezuelan Andes presenting some dark foci in his face and neck which formed in several months. They increased in numbers, got larger and were covered by crusts.
Antifungal combination therapy has a more than 30-year history.
In 1971 Medoff and coworkers observed for the first time a synergistic effect of flucytosin (5FC) with amphotericin B (Amph B) in vitro.
At the same time the monotherapy with 5FC caused in clinical trials a significant increase of resistant mutants.
These two events are the roots of an exciting scientific development; from the finding of additive effects in vitro, over sophisticated animal models to clinical trials.
Combination therapy of 5FC plus Amph B became the gold standard for the acute phase of cryptococcal meningitis and was also used for other opportunistic fungal diseases in severely immunosuppressed patients.
This ‘Broom-like’ organism is aerobic, it burrows under the skin of a host [possibly using the 'spiked' structures on its extensions and it seems to carry stages within its appendages, possibly attached to them by a layer of material [secreted? - EPS or EPS-like?]. It displaces itself into the skin rather quickly. I found this one in Sputum; the relevance of this finding is unclear for the time being. [Is it a facultative ectoparasite? Of the skin? A parasite of one or more layers of the skin? Of humans? Zoonotic?]
The images above were taken by Restorative Health Research
Images of fungal spores
From Here :
From Here :
In the past 2 decades, Burkholderia cepacia has emerged as a human pathogen causing numerous outbreaks, particularly among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. One highly transmissible strain has spread across North America and Britain, and another between hospitalized CF and non-CF patients. Meanwhile, the organism has been developed as a biopesticide for protecting crops against fungal diseases and has potential as a bioremediation agent for breaking down recalcitrant herbicides and pesticides. However, B. cepacia is inherently resistant to multiple antibiotics; selection of strains “safe” for environmental application is not at present possible phenotypically or genotypically; molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies demonstrate that highly transmissible strains emerge randomly; and the organism has a capacity for rapid mutation and adaptation (facilitated by numerous insertion sequences), and a large, complex genome divided into separate chromosomes. Therefore, the widespread agricultural use of B. cepacia should be approached with caution.
From Here :
Care and concern for the environment are leading scientists to develop biological alternatives to the present chemical strategy in the agro-industry and to reduce environmental chemical pollution. Control of plant diseases, insects and nematodes by bacteria and fungi has been proposed as an alternative or supplement to chemical pesticides. Roots and rhizospheres of various crops such as corn, maize, rice, pea, sunflower, and radish can be colonised by B. cepacia-like organisms, some of which produce a variety of antimicrobial compounds that are active against soil pathogens. Using these B. cepacia-like organisms as seed inoculants or root dips can increase crop yields significantly. Moreover, when there are no soil pathogens, a significant growth promoting effect has been reported.
The exceptional nutritional potential of some B. cepacia strains is being used in the bioremediation of hazardous waste sites and effluents. Carcinogenic or toxic products such as ethers present in gasoline, polycyclic aromatic compounds and other constituents of crude oils and coal, herbicides such as 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the principal component of Agent Orange, can be efficiently degraded by certain B. cepacia strains
Subject No. 1 : Anomalous variation in blood cell structure.
Highly visible with use of red laser light.
Subject No. 1 : Same anomaly under normal visible light.
Much more difficult to detect without the use of the laser light.
As time is short for now, the parting comments here will be brief. It is quite clear to me what work needs to be done. The main question that remains is who is going to help to get it done, when are they going to do it, and to what ends are they going to serve? I will do my best to avoid drawing any premature conclusions on the nature of what is being described in this and previous reports. I believe that the photographs presented during recent days speak quite well for themselves. It does seem clear, however, that certain critical issues have been deliberately avoided; to what end only time may tell. I am not making claim on what the nature is that is being shown here; I am making claim that we all need to know what that nature is as quickly as possible. I will offer a suggestion, and it only a suggestion without warranty. It does seem reasonable to consider that a fungal nature(fungemia) or a modified fungal nature may be involved; this has been alluded to earlier and is in keeping with many of the health symptoms that we have been witness now to for many years. It is quite conceivable(and not unexpected) that even more exotic methods of biology or artificial constructs are involved with the Morgellon’s issue; that too will have to find its way in proof that is apparent to all.
One fiber sample at a magnifcation of 750x.
Notice the internal structure of the fiber that begins to appear at this point.
From Here :
Attention has been called to the salient points of observation and need. My personal opinions on the failure of governmental and health organizations on this issue have been noted. The need for parallel examination in detail on the airborne fibrous samples refused by the EPA has been stated. There is no suitable excuse or rationale for inaction on the discoveries that have been disclosed. My ability and time to conduct research of this nature remains limited. My appeal to the professional community to serve the public welfare has been reaffirmed. It is quite expected that more capable resources will provide discovery beyond what can be accomplished here. The Morgellon’s condition is a public health concern and issue, and it is that interest that must be served. Those that have suffered, are suffering, and those that will suffer are entitled to be treated with dignity, compassion and respect. We must all act unselfishly to diminish and alleviate this pain, suffering and ill health that we are now subject to. Infinite appreciation is extended to the person that has graciously provided for the observations that are the substance of this report.
Magnification approximately 1400x.
Numerous fibers are now available; this conglomerate not visible to the naked eye.
Notice internal structures becoming increasingly visible.
Biological natures are more strongly indicated at this point of observation.
The conclusion of this report is necessarily brief at this time. The basic conclusions that can be made are as follows. First, there has been a complete failure of the formal medical community, non-profit organizations and government to adequately research and distribute information to the public on the nature of the Morgellons condition. If the samples studied and shown here are in any way representative of the Morgellons disease, they show that any effort to influence the public to accept this evidence as being of psychological origin or as insignificant are disingenuous at the highest level.
Any motive of secrecy and or misinformation is to be confronted directly and disclosed. The so-called efforts at research by various organizations, including non-profit, university and government are to be called into question; there is a serious lack of informing the public as to the basic nature of the condition. No citizen should be assuming the risk of attempting to identify the nature of this illness.
The traditional medical community and government health organizations have already displayed an appalling failure of addressing the urgency of this matter. I call upon all of those individuals or groups with the proper resources to strike to the core of this issue as quickly as possible, and to disclose all results of the findings to the public as they occur.
From Here :
It seems Parasites control host behaviour.
Could it be that human parasites modulate our behaviour to create favourable conditions ?
From here :
” The adult nematomorph is a short-lived, non-feeding stage. Much to our surprise, we read that when Dr. Willy Burgdorferi dissected the deer tick and discovered the bacteria, he noted the presence of microfilarial worms in a small sample of the ticks, though at the time he saw no significance.”
Research on Toxoplasma gondii, a cat parasite, suggests that chronic infection causes subtle behavioral, personality, and psychological changes in infected people.
Morgellons disease is a mysterious skin disorder that was first described over 300 years ago. The disease is characterized by fiber-like strands extruding from the skin in association with dermatologic and neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms. Although Morgellons disease has been confused with delusional parasitosis, the occurrence of the disease in children, the lack of pre-existing psychopathology in most patients and the presence of subcutaneous fibers on skin biopsy indicate that the disease has a somatic origin. The association with Lyme disease and the apparent response to antibiotic therapy supports the concept that Morgellons disease may be triggered by an infectious process. Recent studies suggest that infection with Agrobacterium may play a role in the disease. Further clinical and molecular research is needed to unlock the mystery of Morgellons disease.
COMMON LABORATORY ABNORMALITIES
Elevated cytokines: TNF-alpha, IL-6, TGF-beta; elevated inflammation markers: C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha; Immunodeficiency markers: low CD 56 or CD 57 number, low C1Q, low IgG subclasses 1 and 3; hematological abnormalities: low hemoglobin and hematocrit with abnormal RBC indices; and biochemical abnormalities: elevated blood glucose, insulin, calcium, and serum Homocysteine, and low serum potassium and magnesium.
The consistent finding of numerous unexpected biologic agents at atypically high levels (some thought to be non-pathogens, others definitely pathogenic) strongly supports that an immune deficiency state exists in Morgellons patients. Agents identified serologically include many zoonoses (intermittently and in low numbers) such as Borrelia (at least five species) and Babesia, a single recently found gram negative bacterium, most herpes viruses, some strongly activated such as VZV and HHV-6, several mycology species (esp. Tineas), and particularly in those we have labeled Morgellons patients, parasites (species will be elaborated following PCR sequencing).
The visual appearance of the fingernails and toenails may suggest an underlying systemic disease. Clubbing of the nails often suggests pulmonary disease or inflammatory bowel disease. Koilonychia, or “spoon-shaped” nails, may stimulate a work-up for hemochromatosis or anemia. In the absence of trauma or psoriasis, onycholysis should prompt a search for symptoms of hyperthyroidism. The finding of Beau’s lines may indicate previous severe illness, trauma, or exposure to cold temperatures in patients with Raynaud’s disease. In patients with Muehrcke’s lines, albumin levels should be checked, and a work-up done if the level is low. Splinter hemorrhage in patients with heart murmur and unexplained fever can herald endocarditis. Patients with telangiectasia, koilonychia, or pitting of the nails may have connective tissue disorders.
From Here :
Dietzia strain X: a newly described Actinomycete isolated from confluent and reticulated papillomatosis.
Natarajan S, Milne D, Jones AL, Goodfellow M, Perry J, Koerner RJ.
Department of Microbiology, Sunderland Royal Hospital, Kayll Road, Sunderland SR4 7TP, U.K.
Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP) is a rare skin disorder.
To date its aetiology remains uncertain. The possibility of an infectious aetiology has been supported by case reports of therapeutic response to antibiotic therapy.
We have isolated and identified a previously unknown Dietzia strain, an Actinomycete, from skin scrapings of a 17-year-old boy with CRP.
We propose that this organism may be the aetiological agent of CRP.
Further investigations are necessary to determine the potential role of this Actinomycete in the pathogenesis of CRP
From Here :
Most of the ~100 Ornithodoros spp inhabit protected niches in burrows, caves, dens, cliffsides, and bird colonies. Among the few that parasitize livestock, O savignyi and O coriaceus are exceptional because they have eyes and because they rest just below or above ground level under the shade of trees and rocks where livestock and game animals rest and sleep. O savignyi , the sand tampan, lives in semiarid areas from Namibia to India and Sri Lanka and is often tremendously abundant. Humans and tethered livestock suffer severe irritation and toxicosis from sand tampan bites, and paralysis and death of animals are recorded. O coriaceus , the “pajaroello” of hillside scrub oak habitats from northern California and Nevada to Chiapias, Mexico, occupies deer beds under trees and near large rocks. It is well-known for irritating deer and cattle, and, in humans, its bite produces a severe skin reaction. Epizootic bovine abortion, caused by Borrelia crocidurae , appears to be transmitted only by O coriaceus . O guerneyi shelters in tree-shaded soil in arid zones of Australia where kangaroos and humans rest; livestock are rare or absent in these habitats.
A very interesting and informative list.
Zoonotic Diseases â€“ Human Health Impacts of Animal Diseases.
“……….In addition to the new bacteria and Borrelia burgdorferi, deer ticks also are carriers of Ehrlichia phagocytophila, which causes ehrlichiosis; Babesia mircoti, which are malarial like organisms; and a virus which can cause encephalitis.
The new organism was observed in nymphs derived from larvae that had fed upon mice that were not infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.
“Some of our experiments were getting some bizarre results,” Fish said. “We were finding infected ticks in experiments where we did not expect them. We sequenced a portion of the DNA to determine what it was and it turned out to be a spirochete that is related to relapsing fever spirochetes rather than the Lyme disease spirochete…………….”
ATLANTA, Oct. 16 â€” Nearly 19,000 people died in the United States in 2005 after being infected with a virulent drug-resistant bacterium that has spread rampantly through hospitals and nursing homes, according to the most thorough study to be conducted of the diseaseâ€™s prevalence.
Brouqui P, Raoult D.
UnitÃ© des rickettsies, CNRS UMR 6020, IFR 48, FacultÃ© de mÃ©decine, 27 bd, J Moulin, 13385 Marseille, cedex 5, France. email@example.com
Homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasites.
The living conditions and the crowded shelters provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, and mites.
Body lice have long been recognized as human parasites and although typically prevalent in rural communities in upland areas of countries close to the equator, it is now increasingly encountered in developed countries especially in homeless people or inner city economically deprived population.
Fleas are widespread but are not adapted to a specific host and may occasionally bite humans. Most common fleas that parasite humans are the cat, the rat, and the human fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, Xenopsylla cheopis, and Pulex irritans, respectively. Ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae, in particular, the genera Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Ixodes, are frequent parasites in humans.
Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is a mite (Arachnida class) responsible for scabies. It is an obligate parasite of human skin.
The hematophagic-biting mite, Liponyssoides sanguineus, is a mite of the rat, mouse, and other domestic rodents but can also bite humans.
Finally, the incidence of skin disease secondary to infestation with the human bedbug, Cimex lectularius, has increased recently. Bacteria, such as Wolbacchia spp. have been detected in the bedbug.
The threat posed by the ectoparasite in homeless is not the ectoparasite themselves but the associated infectious diseases that they may transmit to humans. Except for scabies all these ectoparasites are potential vectors for infectious agents.
Three louse-borne diseases are known at this time. Trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana (B. quintana), epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, and relapsing fever caused by the spirochete Borrelia recurrentis.
Fleas transmit plague (Xenopsylla cheopis and Pulex irritans), murine typhus (Xenopsylla cheopis), flea-borne spotted rickettsiosis on account of the recently described species Rickettsia felis (C. felis), and occasionally cat scratch disease on account of Bartonella henselae (C. felis).
The role of fleas as potential vector of B. quintana has recently been suggested.
Among the hematophagic-biting mites, L. sanguineus, is responsible for the transmission of Rickettsia akari, the etiologic agent of rickettsialpox.
Virtually, no data are available on tick-borne disease in this population. This article will deal with epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these ectoparasite and the infectious diseases they transmit to the homeless people.
PMID: 17114713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Service de bactÃ©riologie, HÃ´pital Cochin, 27 rue du faubourg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris.
Bacterial zoonoses are evolving with changes in society, climate and lifestyles. A hierarchy of non food-borne zoonoses was recently proposed in France, and includes characteristics such as severity criteria and bioterrorism potential. The creation of specific networks and reference centers has provided the means to monitor the emergence (or re-emergence) of zoonoses such as brucellosis and Q fever. Molecular tools have facilitated the detection of bacteria that are transmitted by arthropod vectors (ticks, fleas, etc.) and that cause diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, bartonellosis and ehrlichiosis.
PMID: 17140097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Veterinary Parasitology, University of Milan, Italy.
Some aspects of changing patterns of arthropodal infections and arthropod-borne diseases in Mediterranean areas are briefly discussed.
Selected examples are given, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of the synanthropic flea Ctenocephalides felis felis and on health problems caused by human infections with Argas reflexus, the common tick of urban pigeons in Europe.
Finally, the risk of the emergence of Lyme borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) is considered in relation to the increasing spread of environmental infestation with ticks, mainly Ixodes ricinus, an efficacious vector for the spirochaete.
LOCATION In Europe: France, Britain, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Also found in the Middle East
HABITAT Lives in the nest of its host
LIFE CYCLE May survive for years
MATING HABIT Mating takes place off host in nest
FEEDING HABIT Once fed it can survive for long periods .
The bite is very painful. Infestation may cause pigeon death
HOSTS Mostly targets the domestic pigeon. May also be found on other birds and chickens. Adults are accidentally found on horses and man
DISEASES Transmits West Nile virus, Tick borne encephalitis (TBE), Borrelia anserina (fowl spirochaetosis), Aegyptianella pullorum (fowl piroplamosis), Rickettsia conorii (Q fever), Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)
SIZE Female: 6.5-10 mm
Male: 5-7.5 mm
Unfed Nymph: 3.5-6.5 mm
REFERENCES HILLYARD 1996
November 1, 2007 | Leave a Comment
Incidence of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in arthropods and antibodies in vertebrates
The paper summarizes data on hitherto assembled findings of Spirochaeta burgdorferi, the causal agent of Lyme disease in arthropods and the incidence of antibodies in birds and mammals.
The authors evaluate some vectors and reservoir animals, including possible carriers. Borrelia burgdorferi was found so far in 30 species of Arthropoda, 13 species of mites (Acarina), 15 species of flies(Diptera), two species of fleas (Siphonaptera).
Antibodies were detected in eight species of birds (Aves, Passeriformes) and in 22 mammalian species: one species of marsupiales (Marsupialia), 3 species of carnivores (Carnivora), seven species of rodents (Rodentia), two species of rabbits and hares (Lagomorpha), in 8 species of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla) and one species of odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla).
PMID: 2646031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The patient was a 59-year-old woman with SLE who had developed multiple nodules on the neck and face over several years. Because of major renal insufficiency, she also had been receiving hemodialysis 3 times per week (3.5 hours) for >10 years. The first clinical differential diagnoses were cutaneous SLE, nephrogenous dermatopathy, calciphylaxis, and calcinosis.
The clinical picture was obscured by secondary inflammations and ulcerations caused by self-inflicted trauma.
Multiple sampling attempts by cutaneous core biopsies resulted in histologic diagnosis of unspecific, secondary inflammatory changes. Deep surgical excision of 1 subcutaneous nodule on the scalp indicated subcutaneous helminthosis.
The patient was treated with ivermectin and subjected to 2 plastic surgeries for facial reconstruction, after which she recovered.
There has been considerable speculation concerning possible differences in the ecology of the genospecies and most data suggest that B. afzelii is associated with rodents, B. garinii mainly with birds and B. valaisiana exclusively with birds.
B. garinii has also been identified in tissues taken from rodents and at least one strain of B. garinii (serotype 4), rarely found in ticks but associated with neuroborreliosis, appears to be specific for rodents.
In one study of double infections in ticks, B. valaisiana was most often associated with B. garinii, and in another study both these species were shown to be transmitted from blackbirds (Turdus merula) to ticks. B. burgdorferi s.s. seems to occur frequently in both birds and rodents.
Most recently B. lusitaniae has been strongly associated with lizards in two separate studies.
Numbers of these parasites are at an all time high, with environmental health officers reporting a trebling in the number of cases over the past five years, putting humans and their pets at risk of infection.Ticks can carry Lyme disease.
Vets have reported a significant upsurge in the number of cases and claim dirty homes, busy lifestyles and general ignorance are also contributory factors.
Experts are warning that the problem is set to worsen over the next few weeks as this autumn is likely to provide the ideal conditions for the disease carrying parasites, creating serious implications for human health. Ticks can carry Lyme disease, a paralysing blood disease which can cause blindness and even death.
A response to this article :
I have lived in the country for all of my 60 years and worked with animals throughout. I have seen a badger (dead) with over two hundred ticks and have literally removed the same number from my dogs and until this year not really taken them seriously. At the beginning of August I was the host to a deer tick, which overstayed it’s welcome. At the first opportunity, (6 days) I visited the local GP who correctly prescribed anti biotics, having looked at his computer for some time, admitting at the end of the consultation that “This is a new one for me. I experienced the usual lethargy, headaches (permanent)aching limbs and stiffnes of some joints. The anti biotics seemed to stabilise the symptoms but they did not go away. Four weeks to the day I returned to the GP, not the same one, and explained my symptoms again. After a long very silent pause, I asked for blood tests to be taken, which was agreed. Three weeks later I returned, by my own volition to the second GP, who explained the tests had returned negative and that “The symptoms are in my head, take paracetamol for the headache.” I immediately asked for a referral to the Clinic for Tropical Diseases in Liverpool, which the stunned GP agreed to. The point of all of that is not to be put down by the GP as very little is known of the problems that arise from a tick bite and in my case very little interest was shown by the second GP.
Some ten weeks later I find that my extremely active life has nown changed beyond all recognition. I have a permanent headache which I now tolerate, extreme fatigue which hits without warning, stiffening of the joints, muscle spasm (possibly caused by a reduction in my activity level) dry chesty cough and I now speak with a very annoying nasal twang.
I have had numerous blood tests, taken by the GP and the clinic in Liverpool, these are to be repeated monthly in order to identify whether I have Lyme’s Disease or Tick Borne Encephilitis which have similar symptoms. I am told there is no cure for either, but Lyme’s can be controlled with rotational anti biotics.
Your article was interesting, in that it highlighted the number of possible cases that are not reported. How many patients have been sent packing with the notion that the symptoms are simply imagined.
I have written to Aberdeen University where a study is being carried out by Dr.Bowman, that was two weeks ago and I await the courtesy of a reply.
I would be particularly interested to hear of a help group, or anyone who has, or thinks they have been bitten by either a sheep or deer tick and /or are experiencing the problems associated with this very unwelcome guest.
The moral here is pursue the GP relentlessly, as this is a very unpleasant experience and it can be with you for a very long time.
The crucial information from this article is, I think, “… That to maximize the health benefits of garlic, you should crush the bulbs at room temperature, and allow it to sit for about 15 minutes. This behaviour triggers an enzyme reaction that boosts the healthy compounds found in garlic.”
An in vitro study of the susceptibility of mobile and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to hydroxychloroquine.Brorson O, Brorson SH.
Department of Microbiology, Vestfold Sentralsykehus, Tonsberg, Norway.
In this work the susceptibility of mobile and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was studied.
The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of HCQ against the mobile spirochetes was > 32 microg/ml at 37 degrees C, and > 128 microg/ml at 30 degrees C. Incubation with HCQ significantly reduced the conversion of mobile spirochetes to cystic forms.
When incubated at 37 degrees C, the MBC for young biologically active cysts (1-day old) was > 8 microg/ml, but it was > 32 microg/ml for old cysts (1-week old).
Acridine orange staining, dark-field microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the contents of the cysts were partly degraded when the concentration of HCQ was > or = MBC. At high concentrations of HCQ (256 microg/ml) about 95% of the cysts were ruptured. When the concentration of HCQ was > or = MBC, core structures did not develop inside the cysts, and the amount of RNA in these cysts decreased significantly.
Spirochetal structures inside the cysts dissolved in the presence of high concentrations of HCQ. When the concentration of HCQ was > or = MBC, the core structures inside the cysts were eliminated.
These observations may be valuable in the treatment of resistant infections caused by B. burgdorferi, and suggest that a combination of HCQ and a macrolide antibiotic could eradicate both cystic and mobile forms of B. burgdorferi.
PMID: 12102233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
It seems increasingly likely that the majority of Morgellons patients will test positive for Chlamidia Pneumoniae.
Indeed, as this is an airbourne pathogen, the majority of the population of this planet will have been exposed too.
It is interesting to note that air conditioning systems and sick buildings are frequently mentioned in lists of suspected catalysts of this illness.
Also, since the airline companies have effectively sealed the compartments of airplanes and recycled the air, any infections, passengers might be carrying, must be circulated to all of the people in the cabin too…..
Statistics indicate that over 50% of the world population has been exposed, but this figure is as high as 90% in Lyme Borreliosis patients.
Chlamidia Pneumoniae is also present in patients with Fibromyalgia, CF, CFS and host of other diseases.
I urge EVERYBODY to take some time to read the information to be found here.
It is essential reading.
This is an epidemic.
J Parasitol. 1984 Dec ;70 (6):963-6 6527192
A microfilaria of exceptional size from the ixodid tick, Ixodes dammini, from Shelter Island, New York.
P C Beaver , W Burgdorfer
Thirty or more microfilariae 0.70-1.32 mm in length were recovered from the hemocele of an unengorged adult tick, Ixodes dammini, that was collected from vegetation on Shelter Island, New York. Among approximately 500 I. dammini collected from the same area only 1 other was similarly infected. Outstanding features, in addition to size, were absence of a cephalic space and the presence of nuclei in 2 or 3 irregular rows extending to the end of a bluntly rounded tail. The microfilariae apparently were ingested in a blood meal that was taken when the ticks were larvae or nymphs, and had persisted alive without development.
Dr Jemsek’s practice was closed down. For clinically diagnosing Lyme Borreliosis it would appear.
I heard Dr Jemsek speak at the UK Lyme Disease Conference at Sheffield University in 2005.
I thought his treatment ideas and philosophy inspirational. He recieved a standing ovation.
I am shocked to see this and I wish him well.
To develop fabrics that contain micro-fabricated bio-environments and biologically activated fibers. These fabrics will have genetically engineered bacteria or mammalian cells incorporated into them, that will enable them to generate and replenish chemical coatings and chemically active components.
Degeneration of the elastica and collagen fibres in skin biopsies from patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans was studied with light and electron microscopy.
Elastic fibres were involved in the infiltrative stage while the elastin plexus was still present.
In the atrophic phase, only fragments of elastic and oxytalan fibres were seen and the elaunin plexus was absent. Some collagen fibres were surrounded by osmiophilic material.
In all biopsies, myelin sheaths were collapsed without axon structures.
Spirochetes could be demonstrated in 69% of the biopsies and were most numerous in infiltrative and nodular lesions.
The loss of elasticity of the skin in the atrophic phase may be caused by the destruction of both elastic and elastin fibres.
With their flying and echolocation abilities, bats are extraordinary creatures. Remarkably, they account for fully one-quarter of all mammalian species. Unfortunately, they have also recently been fingered as the hosts of two deadly human pathogens â€“ the SARS and Ebola viruses.
The SARS virus is thought to have crossed a species barrier from its natural host, causing potentially deadly disease in people. It was originally thought to have come from masked palm civits, but it appears that the civit was just an intermediary between bats, the natural host, and humans. Sequence comparisons of the virus from humans and the Chinese horseshoe bat strongly suggest that the bat virus was the source of the human infection.
The first-ever case of Bluetongue disease in Britain has been found in a cow near Ipswich, Suffolk.
The public is being warned to take precautions against ticks as the wet and mild summer has caused a peak in numbers of the blood-sucking parasite.
â€œUnder stressful conditions, the treponeme â€˜packsâ€™ itself into a compact roll and becomes covered with a transparent mucoid capsule, which resists the penetration of drugs and antibodies. The organisms may persist in this form for a prolonged period without any reaction from the host. The encysted treponemes and the host coexist more or less peacefully, but under propitious circumstances the cysts may be transformed again into the usual spiral, which damages the cells of the host and elicits a response.â€
â€”Ovcinnikov NM; Delectorsku VV. 1971.
You Tube Interview with Joseph Burrascano MD
WVVH Hamptons TV (Long Island, New York) has created a one-hour program “Lyme Disease: Medical Nightmare” that is viewable online on YouTube.
Dr. Burrascano and other leaders in the U.S. Lyme community are interviewed.
It would be helpful if people can send thank you’s to the reporter, producer and station, as well as to Ed Romaine, the Suffolk County NY legislator who sponsored the Aug 30 Town Hall Meeting on Lyme Disease where this show was filmed. Our thanks could inspire them to put more on YouTube.
Please thank Ernie Schimizzi (Producer) and Karl Grossman (Reporter):
TEACHER’S TICK BITE WARNING
President Bush has been treated for Lyme Disease it has been revealed today.
American Academy of Neural Therapy and Institute of Neurobiology (Bellevue, WA, USA)
Institute for Neurobiologie (Stuttgart, Germany)
Academy for Balanced NeuroBiology Ltd (London, United Kingdom).
This lecture was presented by Dietrich Klinghardt M.D., Ph.D. at the Jean Piaget Department at the University of Geneva, Switzerland Oct.2002 to physicians and dentists from Europe, Israel, several Arab countries and Asia.
What are Neurotoxins?
Neurotoxins are substances attracted to the mammalian nervous system. They are absorbed by nerve endings and travel inside the neuron to the cell body. On their way they disrupt vital functions of the nerve cell, such as axonal transport of nutrients, mitochondrial respiration and proper DNA transcription. The body is constantly trying to eliminate neurotoxins via the available exit routes: the liver, kidney, skin and exhaled air. Detox mechanisms include acetylation, sulfation, glucuronidation, oxidation and others. Often the host is triggered to produce neurotoxins (which are damaging to their own tissues) by the invading microbes through molecular trickery.
The liver is most important in the toxion elimination process. Here most elimination products are expelled with the bile into the small intestine and should leave the body via the digestive tract. However, because of the lipophilic/neurotropic nature of the neurotoxins, most are reabsorbed by the abundant nerve endings of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the intestinal wall. The ENS has more neurons than the spinal chord.
From the moment of mucosal uptake the toxins can potentially take four different paths:
1.Neuronal uptake and via axonal transport to the spinal chord (sympathetic neurons) or brainstem (parasympathetics) from here back to the brain.
2. Venous uptake and via the portal vein back to the liver
3. Lymphatic uptake and via the thoracic duct to the subclavian vein
4. Uptake by bowel bacteria and tissues of the intestinal tract.
Here is an incomplete list of common neurotoxins in order of importance:
(i) Heavy metals: such as mercury, lead, cadmium and aluminum.
(ii) Biotoxins: such as tetanus toxin, botulinum toxin (botox), ascaridin (from intestinal parasites), unspecified toxins from streptococci, staphylococci, lyme disease, clamydia, tuberculosis, fungal toxins and toxins produced by viruses. Biotoxins are minute molecules (200-1000 kilodaltons) containing nitrogen and sulfur. They belong to a group of chemical messengers which microorganisms use to control the hostâ€™s immune system, host behavior and the hostâ€™s eating habits.
(iii) Xenobiotics (man-made environmental toxins): such as dioxin, phthalates, formaldehyde, insecticides, wood preservatives, PCBs etc.
(iv) Food Preservatives, excitotoxins and cosmetics: such as aspartame (diet sweeteners) food colorings, fluoride, methyl-and propyl-paraben, etc.
I have found that mercury in its different chemical forms has a synergistic amplifying effect with all other neurotoxins. When mercury is removed, the body starts to more effectively eliminate all other neurotoxins, even if they are not addressed.
What are the symptoms?
Any illness can be caused by, or contributed to, or exaggerated by neurotoxins. Fatigue, depression, insomnia, memory loss and blunting of the senses are common early symptoms (see list of mercury related symptoms on the following pages).
How is the diagnosis established?
1. History of Exposure: (Did you ever have any amalgam fillings? A tick bite? etc)
2. Symptoms: (How is your short term memory? Do you have areas of numbness, strange sensations, etc?)
3. Laboratory Testing: (Metals: hair, stool, serum, whole blood, urine analysis,xenobiotics: fatty tissue biopsy, urine. Mold: Immunosciences mold panel)
4. Autonomic Response Testing: (Dr. Dietrich Klinghardt M.D., Ph.D.)
5. BioEnergetic Testing (EAV, kinesiology etc.)
6. Response to Therapeutic Trial
7. Functional Acuity Contrast Test (measure of Retinal Blood Flow)
Why would we want to treat anyone at all? Is it really needed? Can the body not eliminate these toxins naturally on its own?
Here is a short list of independent risk factors which can either cause accumulation of metals in an otherwise healthy body – or slow down, or inhibit the bodys own elimination processes.
occupational exposure to toxic material
medication or recreational drug use
emotional trauma, especially in early childhood
high carbohydrate intake combined with protein malnutrition (especially in vegetarians)
use of homeopathic mercury
the patients electromagnetic environment (mobile phone use, home close to power lines etc)
compromise of head/neck lymphatic drainage (sinusitis, tonsil ectomy scars, poor dental occusion)
number of dental amalgam fillings over the patients life-time, number of the patients mothers amalgam fillings
We will discuss here only those elimination agents, which are natural, safe and have also been shown to be as effective (or more effective) than the few available pharmaceuticals. Because these products cannot be patented and exploited for unethical personal gain, little attention has been given to them by European or North American medical researchers.
Many of the best scientific studies on this topic are from Asian countries.
The Basic Program:
1. High protein, mineral, fatty acid and fluid intake
Proteins provide the important precursors to the endogenous metal detox and shuttle agents, such as coeruloplasmin, metallothioneine, glutathione and others. The branched-chain amino acids in cow and goat whey have valuable independent detox effects.
Metals attach themselves only in places that are programmed for attachment of metal ions. Mineral deficiency provides the opportunity for toxic metals to attach themselves to vacant binding sites. A healthy mineral base is a prerequisite for all metal detox attempts (selenium, zinc, manganese, germanium, molybdenum etc). Substituting minerals can detoxify the body
by itself. Just as important are electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium), which help to transport toxic waste across the extracellular space towards the lymphatic and venous vessels.
Lipids (made from fatty acids) make up 60-80 % of the central nervous system and need to be constantly replenished. Deficiency makes the nervous system vulnerable to the fat soluble metals, such as metallic mercury constantly escaping as odorless and invisible vapor evaporating from the amalgam fillings.
Without enough fluid intake the kidneys may become contaminated with metals. The basal membranes swell up and the kidneys can no longer efficiently filtrate toxins. Adding a balanced electrolyte solution in small amounts to water helps to restore intra-and extracellular fluid balance.
2. Cilantro (Chinese parsley)
This kitchen herb is capable of mobilizing mercury, cadmium, lead and aluminum in both bones and the central nervous system.
(Removal and Preconcentration of inorganic and methyl mercury from aequeous media using a sorbent prepared from the plant Coriandrum Sativumâ€, J of Hazardous Materials B 118(2005) pp 133-139 D Karunasagar et al).
BioPure cilantro uses a special seed from Brazil that is grown under conditions and in soil that enhances its detox power. It is probably the only effective agent in mobilizing mercury stored in the intracellular space (attached to mitochondria, tubulin, liposomes etc) and in the nucleus of the cell (reversing DNA damage of mercury).
Because cilantro mobilizes more toxins then it can carry out of the body, it may flood the connective tissue (where the nerves reside) with metals that were previously stored in safer hiding places. This process is called re-toxification. Itcan easily be avoided by simultaneously giving an intestinal toxin-absorbing agent. Our definite choice is the algal organism chlorella. A recent animal study demonstrated rapid removal of aluminum from the skeleton superior to any
known other detox agent (Intnl J Acup and Electro-Therapeutics Res, 2003).
Dosage and application of BioPure cilantro tincture: give 10 drops in hot waterat bedtime (during the vagus-dominant sleep phase many detox functions are most active) or 30 minutes after taking chlorella. Cilantro causes the gallbladder to dump bile – containing the excreted neurotoxins – into the small intestine. The bile-release occurs naturally as we are eating and is much enhanced by cilantro. If no chlorella is taken, most neurotoxins are reabsorbed on the way down the small intestine by the abundant nerve endings of the enteric nervous system).
Gradually increase dose to 10 drops 3 times/day for full benefit. During the initial phase of the detox cilantro should be given 5 days on, 2 days off. Works most effectively when combined with Toxaway microcurrent foot bath.
Other ways of taking cilantro:
Rub 5 drops twice/day into ankles for mobilization of metals in all organs, joints and structures below the diaphragm, and into the wrists for organs, joints and structures above the diaphragm. The wrists have dense autonomic innervation (axonal uptake of cilantro) and are crossed by the main lymphatic channels (lymphatic uptake).
Good for headaches and other acute symptoms (joint pains, angina, headache): rub 10 -15 drops into painful area. Often achieves almost instant pain relief.
Both C.pyreneidosa (better absorption of toxins, but harder to digest) and C.vulgaris (higher CGF content) see below, easier to digest, less metal absorbing capability) are available. A peer-review literature list is available from BioPure. Be aware that there are huge differences in quality. We only recommend BioPure Chlorella.
Chlorella has multiple published health inducing effects: Antiviral (especially effective against the cytomegaly virus from the herpes family)
Toxin binding (mucopolysaccharide membrane) all known toxic metals, environmental toxins such as dioxin and others.
Repairs and activates the body’s detoxification functions.
Dramatically increases intra-cellular reduced glutathion.
Sporopollein is as effective as cholestyramin in binding neurotoxins and more effective in binding toxic metals then any other natural substance found.
Various peptides restore coeruloplasmin and metallothioneine.
Lipids (12.4 %) alpha-and gamma-linoleic acid help to balance the increased intake of fish oil during our detox program and are necessary for a multitude of functions, including formation of there peroxisomes.
Methyl-coblolamine is food for the nervous system, restores damaged neurons and has its own detoxifying effect.
Chlorella growth factor helps the body detoxify itself in a yet not understood profound way. It appears that over millions of years chlorella has developed specific detoxifying proteins and peptides for every existing toxic metal.
The porphyrins in chlorophyll have their own strong metal binding effect. Chlorophyll also activates the PPAR-receptor on the nucleus of the cell which is responsible for the transcription of DNA and coding the formation of the peroxisomes (see fish oil), opening of the cell wall (unknown mechanism) which is necessary for all detox procedures, normalizes insulin
resistance and much more. Medical drugs that activate the PPAR receptor (such as pioglitazone) have been effective in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer.
Super nutrient: 50-60% amino acid content, ideal nutrient for vegetarians, methylcobolamin – the most easily absorbed and utilized form of B12, B6, minerals, chlorophyll, beta carotene etc.
Immune system strengthening
Restores bowel flora
Digestive aid (bulking agent)
Alkalinizing agent (important for patients with malignancies) Dosage: start with 1 gram (=4 tablets) 3-4 times/day. This is the standard maintenance dosage for grown ups for the 6-24 months of active detox. During the more active phase of the detox (every 2-4 weeks for 1 week), whenever cilantro is given, the dose can be increased to 3 grams 3-4 times per day (1 week on, 2-4 weeks back down to the maintenance dosage). Take 30 minutes before
the main meals and at bedtime. This way chlorella is exactly in that portion of the small intestine where the bile squirts into the gut at the beginning of the meal, carrying with it toxic metals and other toxic waste. These are bound by the chlorella cell wall and carried out via the digestive tract.
When amalgam fillings are removed, the higher dose should be given for 2 days before and 2-5 days after the procedure (the more fillings are removed, the longer the higher dose should be given). No cilantro should be given around the time of dental work. During this time we do not want to mobilize deeply stored metals in addition to the expected new exposure. If you take Vitamin C during your detox program, take it as far away from Chlorella as possible (after meals).
Side effects: most side effects reflect the toxic effect of the mobilized metals which are shuttled through the organism. This problem is instantly avoided by significantly increasing the chlorella dosage, not by reducing it, which would worsen the problem (small chlorella doses mobilize more metals then are bound in the gut, large chlorella doses bind more toxins then are mobilized). Somepeople have problems digesting the cell membrane of chlorella. The enzyme
cellulase resolves this problem. Cellulase is available in many health food stores in digestive enzyme products. Taking chlorella together with food also helps in some cases, even though it is less effective that way. C.vulgaris has a thinner cell wall and is better tolerated by people with digestive problems. Some manufactures have created cell wall free chlorella extracts (NDF, PCA) which are very expensive, less effective – but easily absorbed.
Chlorella growth factor (CGF)
This is a heat extract from chlorella that concentrates certain peptides, proteins and other ingredients. The research on CGF shows that children develop no
tooth decay and their dentition (maxillary-facial development) is near perfect. There are less illnesses and children grow earlier to a larger size with higher I.Q and are socially more skilled. There are case reports of patients with dramatictumor remissions after taking CGF in higher amounts. In our experience, CGFmakes the detox experience for the patient much easier, shorter and more effective.
Recommended dosage: 1 cap. CGF for each 20 tablets chlorella.
4. Garlic (allium sativum) and wild garlic (allium ursinum)
Garlic has been shown to protect the white and red blood cells from oxidative damage, caused by metals in the blood stream – on their way out â€“ and also has its own valid detoxification functions. Garlic contains numerous sulphur components, including the most valuable sulph-hydryl groups which oxidize
mercury, cadmium and lead and make these metals water soluble. This makes it easy for the organism to excrete these substances. Garlic also contains alliin which is enzymatically transformed into allicin, natureâ€™s most potent antimicrobial agent.
Metal toxic patients almost always suffer from secondary infections, which are often responsible for part of the symptoms. Garlic also contains the most important mineral which protects from mercury toxicity, bio active selenium. Most selenium products are poorly absorbable and do not reach those body compartments in need for it. Garlic selenium is the most beneficial natural bioavailable source. Garlic is also protectice for against heart disease and
cancer. The half life of allicin (after crushing garlic) is less then 14 days. Most commercial garlic products have no allicin releasing potential left. This distinguishes freeze dried garlic from all other products. Bear garlic tincture is excellent for use in detox, but less effective as antimicrobial agent.
Dosage: 1-3 capsules freeze dried garlic after each meal. Start with 1 capsule after the main meal per day, slowly increase to the higher dosage. Initially the patient may experience die-off reactions (from killing pathogenic fungal orbacterial organisms). Use 5-10 drops bear-garlic on food at least 3 times per day.
5. Fish oil:
The fatty acid complexes EPA and DHA in fish oil make the red and white blood cells more flexible thus improving the microcirculation of the brain, heart and other tissues. All detoxification functions depend on optimal oxygen delivery and blood flow. EPA and DHA protect the brain from viral infectionsand are needed for the development of intelligence and eye-sight. The most vital cell organelle for detoxification is the peroxisome. These small structures are
also responsible for the specific job each cell has: in the pineal gland themelatonin is produced in the peroxisome, in the neurons dopamine and norepinephrine, etc. It is here, where mercury and other toxic metal attach and is able the cell from doing its work.
Other researchers have focused on the mitochondria and other cell organelles, which in our experience are damaged much later. The cell is constantly trying to make new peroxisomes to replace the damaged onesâ€“ for that task it needs an abundance of fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA. Until recently it was believed, that the body can manufacture its own EPA/DHA from other Omega 3 fatty acids such as fish oil. Today we know that this process is slow and cannot
keep up with the enormous demand for EPA/DHA our systems have in todays toxic environment. Fish oil is now considered an essential nutrient, even for vegetarians. Recent research also revealed that the transformation humans underwent when apes became intelligent and turned into humans happened only in coastal regions, where the apes started to consume large amounts of fish. Why not benefit from that knowledge and consume more fish oil?
The fatty acids in fish oil are very sensitive to exposure to electromagnetic fields, temperature, light and various aspects of handling and processing. Trans fatty acids, long chain fatty acids, renegade fats and other oxidation products and contaminants are frequently found in most commercial products. Ideally, fish oil should be kept in an uninterrupted cooling chain until it ends up in the patients fridge. The fish-source should be mercury and contaminant free, which
is becoming harder and harder. Fish oil should taste slightly fishy but not toomuch. If there is no fish taste, too much processing and manipulation has destroyed the vitality of the oil. If it tastes too fishy, oxidation products are present. I recommend to use the product recommended below (grade I), where meticulous care has been taken to comply with all the necessary parameters. The clinical results are outstanding.
Dosage: 1 capsule Omega 3 taken 4 times/day during the active phase of treatment, 1 caps. twice/day for maintenance. Best if taken together with chlorella.
The VegiPearls contain half the amount of EPA/DHA. The vegetarian capsules eliminate even the most remote possibility of containing prions and make the idea of taking fish oil more easily acceptable for vegetarians. Recently a fattyacid receptor has been discovered on the tongue, joining the other more known taste receptors. If the capsules are chewed, the stomach and pancreas start to prepare the digestive tract in exactly the right way to prepare for maximum absorption. Children love chewing the VegiPearls.
To treat bipolar depression, post partum depression and other forms of mental disease, 2000 mg of EPA are needed/day (David Horrobin). For the modulation of malignancies, 120 mg of EPA 4 times/day are needed. The calculations can easily be done with the information given on the label.
Matrix Electrolytes (ME)
The autonomic nervous system in most toxic patients is dysfunctional. Electric messages in the organism are not received, are misunderstood or misinterpreted. Toxins cannot be shuttled through the extracellular space. Increased intake of natural ocean salt (celtic sea salt) â€“ and avoidance of regular table salt – has been found to be very effective in resolving some of these problems. Most effective is a solution pioneered by the American chemist Ketkovsky. He created theformula for the most effective electrolyte replacement, which was further
improved by our research team and is available under the name Matrix Electrolyte. I recommend this to all my patients and have observed, that every aspect of the detoxification process seems to be enhanced. Dramatically enhances the absorbtion and clinical effectiveness of herbs when given together with ME.
Five percent of the population is sodium or chloride sensitive the blood pressure goes up (easily reversible). In these patients the detox process takes longer and is more difficult.
Dosage: 1 tsp in a cup of good water 1-3 times/day
Gradually increase the dosage to 1 tbsp 3 times/day
Toxaway microcurrent foot bath:
This Australian invention has been greatly improved by Swiss engineers. Toxins are excreted via the plantar skin and lymphatics. The frequencies also stimulate via the ANS both liver and kidneys in their respective detox activity. Yetunpublished German research shows a dramatic toxin elimination effect when combined with oral cilantro.
Soy derived phospholipids, magnesium, alpha-lipoic acid and Na-EDTA. This magical mix encourages the â€œreverse cholesterol transport (taking deposits out of endothelium), has a strong anti-microbial effect and detoxes neurotoxins including mercury in the cell wall and probably inside the cell as well. Long term results are dramatic especially in the treatment of Lyme related heart problems and in treating disturbed microcirculation of the frontal lobe of the
brain. Phospholipids have a profound synergistic effect with herbs, facilitating their absorption and distribution into the matrix and beyond. Mucuna powder: used since ancient days in India. Powerful antimicrobial and to restore depleted neurotransmitter levels in the chronic Lyme patient. 1-6 tsp/day
Chloralyte osmotically broken cell wall chlorella: highly bioactive, releases sporopollein (which is damaged in most other chlorella preparations)
Garlic Tincture for topical use and treatment of oral mucosa/periodontal disease
Rechts Regulat: potent enzyme-rich fermented drink from Germany that has been shown to break up abnormal proteins in blood and matrix. Fibrinolytic. Can also be sprayed on skin for healing of psoriasis and other illnesses.
Oxo: plant root derived compound that was used as Malaria treatment in the past. Very effective for Babesia
Matrix Microbes: 83 beneficial bactertia and fungi. Great for short term use as bowel probiotic. Cleanes open wounds in a few days (use in ulcerating breast cancer, open pulp during dental intervention, bed-sores). Used to spray the home with dilution to change microbial environment. Great for flu prevention. Use for skin ailments, including hair loss.
NDF/HMD/PCA are expensive combinations of enzymatically broken up chlorella and cilantro
More aggressive approaches, such as i.v. Glutathione, Vit.C, DMPS, CaEDTA
and others have a place in reasonably healthy people but often worsen the
condition in patients with advanced illness.
Most valuable is the addition of psychotherapeutic interventions such as applied psycho neurobiology (APN) and mental field therapy (MFT) to trigger the release of toxins from their hiding places. Chlorella, cilantro, garlic-products and fatty acids vary greatly in quality and nutrient content, also in content of contaminants. A few specifics on neurotoxins and other ways our human system is tricked into becoming a comfortable host.
It appears that Lyme spirochetes are highly intelligent and have learned to live with us and manipulate our system to their advantage. Our health becomes compromised, but only rarely severely. This is when we make the diagnosis â€œLyme Diseaseâ€. Bb is inducing the host to make his/her own
neurotoxins, which disable the host to a degree but are however essential and necessary for the survival of Bb. Most other infectious microbes make their own
neurotoxins and immunotoxins. This adaptation of Bb points towards the fact that Bb or close relatives have been with us for a long time (10s of thousands of years).
1. Quinolinic acid (Quin): potent neurotoxin. Spirochetes induce microglia of brain (4% of brain mass) to convert tryptophane into this compound. Elevated in chronic Neuroborreliosis in CSF. In brain tissue 10 times increased over CNS level. Potent synergistic effect with ROS (Lyme
spirochetes are potent ROS inducers. ROS are used by macrophags andother white cells to kill spirochetes).
interference with neurotransmitter production
damage to synaptic connections
brain atrophy/cerebral volume loss
o chlorella and CGF in high doses (BioPure)
o Cilantro and Detox foot bath (Toxaway system)
o Mucuna Powder (BioPure)
o zinc: prevents hippocampal damage from QUIN
o copper (at low doses) reduces strital GABA depletion and blocks oxidative injury to neurons use combination 30 mg zinc picolinate with 2 mg copper
o Resveratrol from Japanese Knotweed (Source Naturals, 500 mg whole herb/capsule. Use 3-4 caps 3-4 times/day)
o Phospholipid Exchange (BioPure): EDTA, alpha lipoic acid prevent ROS damage, Phospholipids repair toxic injury and work as a shuttle agent to bring other toxin binding substances to deep tissue places. 1 tbsp/day
o KMT microcurrent therapy
o Lymphatic drainage and colon hydrotherapy
2. Gossypol: anti-androgenic substance (Buhner, pg 131) effect:
low testosterone levels
fatigue and low sex drive
immune system fatigue
o use testosterone transdermal cream for several months, until Lyme tx sufficiently progressed.
o Pregnenolone, DHEA have disappointed in Lyme
o Ashwagandha (ayurvedic herb): increases testosterone levels in both men and women. Repairs adrenal/ovarian/testicular damage(adaptogen)
o Smilax (sarsaparilla): 500 mg caps : 1-3 caps t.i.d.
o Moderate exercise as soon as possible
3. Lyme spirochets have up to 12 linear and 12 circular plasmids
(extrachromosomal DNA) which are activated by environmental cues
o Reduce stress in life, simplify
o Change the clients inner and outer environment!
o moderate, not excessive exercise
o beware of high protein diets (good with chronic mold, often poor results with Lyme)
o lean towards raw foods in diet
o avoid food allergens
o avoid bad energy consuming relationships
o do what you love to do
4. upregulation of virulence factors
connective tissue penetration
example: adhesins ( decorin binding proteins).Decorin is part of the collagen type III maintainance system. By binding it in the initial phase of the Lyme infection colonization in collagen and tissue penetration is facilitated. Makes it impossible for immunsystem to recognize camouflaged spirochetes.
upregulation of plasminogen binding factors as well as its activator,urokinase. Spirochets ride piggyback on plasminogen (which inactivated fibrin during initial phase of infection). Outcome:spirochets move faster through connective tissue then through blood. Spirochetes love connective tissue which explains their 5 favorite tissues to set up their housekeeping:
ligaments and joints (asymmetric affliction of large jopints, especially hip and knee)
skin and subcutaneous tissues (collagen breakdown and premature aging)
meninges and astroglia (connective tissue of brain)
aequeous humor of the eye
o Heparin 5000 iu s.c or
o Rechtsregulat 1 tbsp twice daily in glass water
o Matrix Electrolytes
o Proteolytic enzymes
o KMT microcurrent
o Lymph drainage
o Auto-urine therapy
o Homeopathic aesculus (horse chestnut)
o Trans-dermal growth hormone
o When giving iv antibiotics, add 3-5ml low molecular weight hyaluronic acid for better tissue penetration
Other factors to facilitate tissue penetration:
infection of fibroblasts (fibroblasts are induced to make more GAGs and less collagen)
disruption or rearrangement of cytoskeleton
collagenolytic, fibrinolytic and proteolytic actions
inhibition of wound healing factors, including hGH
upon binding to collagen release of porins OMS 28 (form pores in the outer membrane of cells)
stimulating the bodyâ€™s release of metalloproteinases (MMPs) â€“ mostly type 1, 3 and 9 (facilitate travel through extracellular matrix) â€“ the MMPs are responsible for most the damage in Lyme arthritis
release of Borrelia glycosaminoglycan binding protein ( binds GAGs to Borrelia surface â€“ Bb uses Gags as food source).
o Chlorella and CGF in high doses (BioPure)
o Matrix Electrolyte
o KMT microcurrent
o Phospholipid Exchange
o Resveratrol and trans-Resveratrol from Japanese Knotweed (polygonum cuspidatum)
Source Naturals Resveratrol from Knotweed (Hu Zhang) 500mg caps: 3 caps tid immune system manipulation
o Powerful upregulation of TH-1 lymphocytes via unknown mechanism (IL-2, TNF-beta, IF-gamma) treatment: fluconazole 100 mg twice daily for 50 days.
o CD 57: aggressive white cell, gets lowered by Bb via unknown mechanism. Patients with low CD 57 have more co-infections and feel sicker, have more neurological symptoms and more immune problems. Stricker MD recommends this as marker for progression of disease (Ann Agric Environ Med 2002, 9:111-113)
o BioPure energy modulated PC-Samento: start with 4 drops twice daily in a glass of water. Slowly increase to 15 drops twice daily, as Herxheimer reactions permit.
o Energy modulated PC-Noni: 6 drops twice daily. Increase slowly to 15 drops 3 times/day. Take 20 min away from samento.
Stephen Buhner â€œHealing Lymeâ€ Raven Press 2005
www.chronicneurotoxins.com ( Ritchie Shoemaker, MD)
Many fungi produce toxic metabolites called mycotoxins, many of which are neurotoxic. Over 100 species known to cause infection in humans.
Three classifications of infection:
1. systemic (by inhalation): in healthy individuals self limited illness, in immune suppressed individuals may disseminate (generally fatal).
Example: Histoplasmosis, Coccidioidomycosis and Paracoccidioidomycosis, Blastomycosis
2. opportunistic infection (common in Lyme and as result of heavy metal toxicity): facultative parasites â€“ can use living and dead substrates for nutrition.
Cladosporium (most commonly found genus of fungi in outdoor air in temperate climates; refridgerators and moist window frames, discolors interior paint, textiles and paper, soil of overwatered house plants, sporulates heavily with buoyant spores,together with Alternaria causes hay fever and asthma)
Fusarium graminaerum: in water damaged carpets, often found
in schools, also in cereals
3. Dermatophytes (hair, skin and nails). Usually contracted by direct contact through sharing grooming utensils, showers, and towels). Also passed on via soil.
Aspergillus and Penicillum species produce:
Stachybotrys species and fusarium produce (worst is probably stachybotrys chartarum greenish-black fungus that grows on fiberboard, gypsum/dry-wall, dust and lint, wallpaper, insulation, particleboard, water-damaged wood. The spores are not destroyed in fire. Spores gravitate to floor: even finding one airborne spore often indicates â€œlost
o Tricothecine (extremely potent): several subtypes of macrocytic tricothecenes: stachybotryolactone, verrucarin J, roridin E, satratoxin F, G&H, sporidesmin G, trichoverrols and trichoverrins, 9-phenylspirodrimanes (cyclosporins &spirolactams)
o T-2 toxin
Numerous other mycotoxins produced by these and other fungi of which the health effects remain unknown.
Symptoms of mycotoxin exposure:
Acute memory loss
Flu like symptoms
Body aches and pains
Multiple ANS symptoms: neurogenic switching, blocked regulation
Symmetric arthritis of spinal joints and small joints of fingers
Immune suppression with all itâ€™s consequences ( lower proportion of CD3 T-lymphocytes
Memory loss and multiple cognitive problems
Ovarian cysts and fibroids, fertility problems both male and female
Cancer (many mnycotoxins are highly carcinogenic)
In children: neurodevelopmental problems (autism, seizures, ADHD) and cancer
Fetal malformations and other problems
MS like symptoms and CNS pathology
Parkinson like symptoms and CNS changes
Tingling, numbness vibrations (both inside head and extremities)
ANS symptoms: blocked regulation
Human studies on infants Ueno, 1980; Jacob et al., 1994) in Jan 17, 2005 in MMWR: cluster of fatal pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis
Animal studies: necrosis and hemorrhage within brain, thymus, spleen, intestine, heart, lung, lymph nodes, liver and kidney
cognitive and memory problems (neurogenic switching)
loss of visual contrast (FACT)
o Indoor air quality inspection and culturing of organisms: leaky roofs, plumbing leaks, overflow from sinks and sewers, damp basement or crawl space, steam from shower or cooking, flooding, sprinkler spray hitting the house or underground flow of rain water, humidifiers, damp clothing or dryers exhausting indoors
o HEPA air filter in home
o Avoidance (often means to move)
o Klinghardt neurotoxin elimination protocol (most important: Freeze Dried Garlic, KMT microcurrent therapy and Phospholipid Exchange) www.neuraltherapy.com
o Desensitization (EPD, homeopathy, ART based techniques (NAET, EAV or EDS, APN allergy technique)
o Intravenous protocols (Vit C 25-5- gms, glutathione 600-4500 mg,
alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg over 1 hour, Hepa Merz =ornithine aspartate, weekly Ca-EDTA, nutritional ivs (Majid Ali)
o Medical drug and others: chlorella, cholestyramine, beta-sitosterol,
reedgrass – and apple pectin, charcoal, propolis, ground flax seed and fiber for prevention of enterohepatic recirculation of toxins, fluconazole and other antifungals, nystatin
Clinical tips from Dr Klinghardt.
Most symptoms of heavy metal toxicity, mold exposure, Lyme disease and parasite infestation often look identical. Here is a way to differentiate:
Lyme symptoms worsen during and after successful mercury detoxification (Hg-poisoning was successfully used as a treatment for spirochetes. After eliminating Hg, the microbes recover before the host immune system does).
Mold symptoms improve after successful Hg removal (mold uses Hg to protect itself from the host immune system)
Lyme arthritis affects the large joints, mostly knee and hip
Mold arthritis affects the small joints of the spine (facet joints) and of the fingers
Tip#3: rythms and biorythms:
mold symptoms can flare up within minutes after exposure (ie visiting someone who lives in a moldy home)
Lyme symptoms undulate with slower biorythms: 9-10 day cycles, 28-day cycles . When symptoms come back, usually slow rise in intensity over 24 hours.
Worm and parasite symptoms worsen for 2-3 days during the full moon
(this is when they are sexually most active and propagate â€“ with accompanying immune reaction). Patient feels relatively well during new moon
mold sufferers feel better in dry climates
Lyme sufferers cannot tolerate sunshine and often feel worse in dry/sunny climates (avoid sun, get depressed in sun)
worms in men: risk taking behavior. In women: docile behavior. In both:short episodes of odd crazy schizoid behavior (hours).
Neuro-Lyme: episodes of rages and depression. Same mood may last for a few days or weeks, not minutes. Normal/nice episodes even in illest person. Get easily infatuated in inappropriate ways
Mold: often moods connected with dullness of brain. Can change in minutes after exposure. Often chronically irritated as long as in mold environment and immediately better, as soon as out
Metal toxicity: affected patients drawn to the dark/evil. Man made: artificial environments (prefer Disney land over trip to the ocean), rhythm without real music
Detox has to be done carefully and right!
October 2002/2nd edition Jan 2006
Dietrich Klinghardt, MD, PhD
Bellevue, Washington, USA
Dietrich K.Klinghardt, MD, PhD
Bellevue WA firstname.lastname@example.org 1/7/05
In the last decade the majority of outcome-oriented physicians observed a major shift: we realized that it was neither the lack of vitamins or growth hormone that made our patients ill. We discovered that toxicity and chronic infections were most often at the core of the clientâ€™s suffering. We watched the discussion, which infection may be the primary one: mycoplasma, stealth viruses, HHV-6, trichomonas, Chlamydia pneumoniae, leptospirosis, mutated strep, or whatelse?.
The new kid on the block is Borrelia Burgdorferi (Bb) and some of us have looked at it for a long time as possibly the bug that opens the door for all the other infections to enter the system.
Lyme disease has become a buzzword in the alternative medical field. Since none of the recommended treatments are specific to either one of the microbes, we can never assume that we really know what we treated once a patient has recovered. Microbiologist Gitte Jensen, PhD had shown, that the older we get, the more foreign DNA is attached to our own DNA. Somewhere along the line pathogenic microbes invade the hostâ€™s DNA and become a permanent part of it. Since we use only 2% of our DNA, it may not be a problem. In fact, it may make us who we finally become. It may also cause a number of symptoms and chronic illness. Genius Guenther Enderleinâ€™s discoveries take us off the hook: if one microbe can change into another given the right environment, why bother to find out, who we are infected with? . The bookâ€Lab 257â€ suggests that Bb is a an escaped man- made US military bio-warfare organism (just like myoplasma incognitus and HHV 6).
Other authors suggest that different subtypes of Borrelia which cause illness in humans, such as B. afzelii and B.garinii have probably existed longer then B.burgdorferi and occur naturally (1, 2) and have been with us for a long time, maybe centuries or more. Neurologist Prof. J.Faust MD, PhD of the Albert-Ludwig University in Freiburg, Germany (3) related many neurological and psychiatric illnesses to spirochete infections as early as the 1960s. He was so skilled in his clinical knowledge that he could â€“ only based on clinical neurological symptoms – accurately predict which valley in the Black Forest the infected patient was from! This clearly was a time before Bb – showing that non-syphilis spirochete infections were around earlier then the famous Bb outbreak in Connecticut in the mid seventies. It also makes a strong statement to the fact how easily these creatures may mutate and adapt to local conditions. It may however validate the findings published in â€œLab 257â€: Tuebingen, the place where German/US warfare spirochete expert Traub was continuing his spirochete experiments in the early 50s, is situated in the Black Forest also. Were these spirochetes genuine or have they escaped from a university laboratory?
Making the diagnosis
It appears, that many patients with MS, ALS, Parkinsonâ€™s disease, autism, joint arthritis, chronic fatigue, sarcoidosis and even cancer are infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. But is the infection causing the illness or is it an opportunistic infection simply occurring in people weakened by other illnesses.
My experience is based on
a) using direct microscopic proof of the presence of Borrelia burgdoferi (Bb) and other spirochetes (4, 5)
b) the information many affected clients have brought to me
c) my own clinical training and experience ( 30 years in Medical practice, 15 years Bb cognizant)
d) ART testing (autonomic response testing), which is the most advanced and scientifically validated method of muscle testing (6)
e) lab parameters affected by Lyme:
â€¢ Abnormal lipid profile (moderate cholesterol elevation with significant LDL elevation)
â€¢ insulin resistance
â€¢ borderline low wbc, normal SED rate and CRP
â€¢ normal thryroid hormone tests but positive Barnes test and excellent response to giving T3
â€¢ type 2 (high cortisol, low DHEA) or type 3 adrenal failure (low cortisol and DHEA)
â€¢ low testosterone and DHEA
â€¢ decreased urine concentration (low specific gravity)
Bb tends to infect the B-lymphocytes and other components of the immune system which are responsible for creating the antibodies, which are then measured by an ELISA test or Western Blot test. Since antibody production is greatly compromised in infected individuals, it makes no sense to use these tests as the gold standard or benchmark for the presence of Bb (7). We also are aware that in endemic areas in the US up to 22% of stinging flies and mosquitoes (2, 8, 9,10) are carriers of Bb and co-infections. In South East Germany and Eastern Europe 12 % of mosquitoes have been shown to be infected. Also many spiders, flees, lice and other stinging insects carry spirochetes and co-infections.
Making the history of a tick bite a condition for a physician to be willing to even consider the possibility of a Bb infection seems cynical and cruel.
To use conventional diagnostic tests such as the Western Blot, one has to think in paradoxes: the patient has to be treated with an effective treatment modality first before the patient recovers enough to produce the antibodies, which then are looked for in the test. A positive Western Blot proves that the treatment given worked to some degree.
A negative Western Blot does not and cannot prove the absence of the infection.
Having taken another route altogether, we have recognized the following:
Today many if not most Americans are carriers of the infection. Most infected people are symptomatic, but the severity and type of the symptoms varies greatly. The microbes often invade tissues that had been injured: your chronic neck pain or sciatica really may be a Bb infection. The same may be true for your chronic TMJ problem, your adrenal fatigue, your thyroid dysfunction, your GERD and many other seemingly unrelated symptoms.
In most places the diagnosis of an active Bb infection is made only, if the symptoms are severe, persistent, obvious and many non-specific and fruitless avenues of treatment have been exhausted. Acute new â€œtypicalâ€cases of Bb infection are rare in my practice. Symptoms tend to get stranger and more obscure every year.
Frequently, if the patient is fortunate enough to see a practitioner who is â€œLyme cognizantâ€, the diagnosis of a supposedly fresh case of symptomatic Lyme disease is made when a significant tissue toxin level has been reached (threshold phenomenon) or when a new co-infection has occurred recently. The symptoms can mimic any other existing medical, psychological or psychiatric condition. The list of significant co-infections is limited: roundworms, tapeworms, threadworms, toxoplasmosis, giardia and amoebas, clostridia, the herpes virus family, parvovirus B 19, active measles (in the small intestine), leptospirosis, chronic strep infections and their mutations, Babesia, Brucella, Ehrlichiosis, Bartonella, mycoplasma, Rickettsia, Bartonella and a few others. Molds and fungi are always part of the picture. The pattern of co-infections and the other preexisting conditions such as mercury toxicity determine the symptom-picture but not the severity.
The severity of symptoms correlates most closely with the overall summation or body burden of coexisting conditions and with the genetically determined ability to excrete neurotoxins. The genes coding for the glutathione S-transferase and for the different alleles of apolipoprotein E (E2, E3 and E4) play a mojor role. E2 can carry twice as much sulfhydryl-affinitive toxins (such as mercury and lead) out of the cell as the E3 subtype, E4 carries out none. Trouble in the methylation, acetylation and sulfation pathways are also common. Other factors, such as diet and food allergies, past toxic and electromagnetic exposures, emotional factors and unhealed ancestral trauma, scar interference fields and occlusal jaw and bite problems are also important (6).
Taken all of the above into account, we do not distinguish between people who have the Bb infection and those who donâ€™t. We distinguish between people who have Lyme disease and those who donâ€™t.
a) patients who are infected with any type of Borrelia and are symptomatic have â€œLymeâ€disease
b) healthy people who are not symptomatic often already have a spirochete infection as well. They may or may not be disasters waiting to happen. But they do not (yet) have Lyme â€œdiseaseâ€. Most often several of the â€œco-infectionsâ€ are already present prior to the infection with Bb or other spirochetes.
In treatment we focus on exploring the difference between symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers. We treat what the symptomatic person is missing (such as enough magnesium in the diet) or has extra (such as mercury) compared to the asymptomatic one. The group suffering most are newborn babies and young children, who rarely are diagnosed correctly and therefore are not treated appropriately. They often carry the labels ADHD, autistic spectrum disorder, seizure disorder and others. Detoxifying these kids with transdermal DMPS and treating the chronic infections is often curative.
The 3 Components of Lyme disease
Lyme disease has 3 components, which should be recognized and addressed with treatment:
The presence of spirochete infection and co-infections
The co-infections are bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic. Since the spirochetes paralyze multiple aspects of the immune system, the organism is without defenses against many microbes. Many – if not most – of the co-infections are really a consequence of the spirochete infection and not truly a simultaneously occurring â€œco-infectionâ€.
For this aspect of treatment we use pulsed electromagnetic fields (KMT-microbial inhibition frequencies), niacin in high doses (12)herbs, minerals, bee venom (6) and – sometimes – antiparasitic medication and antibiotics.
The KMT microcurrent technology is new and revolutionary(17). The instruments are FDA approved for pain control. Designed by Japanese engineers they use 4 different – but simultaneously applied – high frequency superimposed biological waveforms. The interference pattern is creating thousands of harmonics which are then manipulated into the specific published microbial inhibition frequencies ( against Bb, mycoplasma etc.). This stealthy microcurrent travels freely through the body reaching every tissue. The instrument measures the skin conductance over a 100 times/second adjusting the amperage constantly (so that the body never creates habituation/resistance against it). The microbes are inhibited in their metabolic and sexual activity and gradually die out or disappear from the body. The instrument looks not much different then a TENS unit and is applied via 4 electrodes to the skin or used by translating the electric field into a vector force field using signal enhancer technology. The KMT frequencies are designed to not only interfere with the reproductive mechanism of the microbes and parasites, but also to awaken the immune system, entrain the white cells to recognize the invaders and at the same time help to absorb and shuttle the effective medication to the body compartment, where the infection actually is. Otherwise, most treatment substances given never reach the target in sufficient concentration.
Component #2: the illness producing effect of microbial exo- and endotoxins
Most of these are neurotoxins, some appear to be carcinogenic as well, others block the T3 receptor on the cell wall, etc. Decreased hormonal output of the gonads and adrenals is a commonly observed neurotoxin mediated problem in Lyme patients. Central inhibition of the pineal gland, hypothalamus and pituitary gland is almost always an issue that has to be resolved somewhat independently from treating the infection. Furthermore, biotoxins from the infectious agents have a synergistic effect with heavy metals, xenobiotics and thioethers from cavitations and NICO lesions in the jaw and from root filled teeth. My published neurotoxin elimination protocol can be downloaded for free (6).
We use toxin binding agents such as fiber rich ground up raw vegetables, chlorella, cholestyramine ( 13 ), beta-Sitosterol, propolis powder, apple pectin and mucuna bean powder ( 14 ). A solid heavy metal detoxification program should be used simultaneously with the first phases of the Lyme treatment. Safe toxic metal elimination is an art unto itself. However, the information is widely available now( 15 ).
The more difficult objective is to choose agents and methods to trigger the release of neurotoxins from their respective binding sites. Only then can they be transported to the liver, processed and enter the small intestine from where they can be carried out by the binding agents. The toxins occupying the T3 receptor are competitively displaced by oral T3 – cycled with the Wilson protocol (available at most compounding pharmacies). The toxins blocking the cortisol receptor are mobilized with the herb forskolin. CGF chlorella – a sophisticated mix of chlorella and chlorella growth factor (14) – and cilantro given together with a non-irradiated mucuna bean powder mobilize most everything else. I also use alternate day dosing of an energetically enhanced phospholipid/EDTA/Alpha-Lipoic acid mix (â€œPhospholipid Exchangeâ€) which is currently the most tolerated and effective form of phospholipids for the Lyme patient (14).
The KMT microcurrent frequencies dramatically increase the speed of toxin mobilization and access body compartments the biochemical compounds cannot (17). Psychotherapeutic intervention (15) to uncover and treat old trauma is most profoundly effective in triggering a neurotoxin release when none of the other methods appear to work anymore. After each APN session we pre-medicate the patient with CGF-chlorella. Sometimes the extraction of a devitalized tooth or the injection of one of the facial/cervical ganglia with glutathione or another detox agent can trigger a major neurotoxin release (16). Lymph drainage in combination with colon hydrotherapy accesses toxins stored in the lymphatic body-compartment.
The immune reactions provoked by the presence of both toxins and microbes (there are 3 sub-possibilities, which have to be recognized and addressed)
The immune reactions are largely depending on host factors, such as genetics, prior illnesses, mental-emotional baggage, early childhood traumatization, current exposure to electromagnetic fields (sleeping location, use of cell phones, poor wiring in car or home, etc), food allergies and diet, socio-economic background, marital stress etc.
1: Anergy – the absence of reaction due to the successful evasion of the host-defenses . One of the more known mechanisms the microbes use to create anergy is hypercoagulation. The microbes tend to live in the endothelium, where the food is most abundant. They trigger the hostâ€™s coagulation mechanism to lay down a layer of fibrin on top of them to evade recognition by the immune system. etc. For this aspect we use 3 techniques: a) the KMT-microcurrent technology and homeopathics to wake up and entrain the immune system
b) Rechtsregulat (â€œright rotatory fluidâ€) which is an enzyme rich extract of fermented fruits and vegetables (14). It has outperformed the s.c. injection of heparin in our own trials. Lumbrokinase is far more effective then Nattokinase. Both appear weak when compared to Rechtsregulat. We also clientâ€™s system (geopathic stress, EM stress, food allergies, emotional factors, interference fields such as scars and disturbed ganglia and we substitute vitamins and minerals based on ART testing).
c) the Enderlein remedies (especially the haptens) from Pleomorphic-Sanum
B: Allergy – appropriate or exaggerated immune reactions (both cellular TH1-reaction and TH2-cytokine activation). In Lyme disease often (not always) the TH2 (humoral portion of the immune system) is overly active, TH1 is asleep (the cellular immune system). Nothing works better then the APN-desensitization procedure (15): while the patient is exposed to the allergen ( we use a glass-carrier fixated culture of the offending microbes) the ANS is kept in a state of equilibrium, using tapping of acupuncture-points, hypnotherapeutic trauma-recall and intervention techniques and our proprietary psychokinesiology (muscle-biofeedback psychotherapy). A very effective and yet simple technique to turn TH1 back on is auto-urine therapy. The patientâ€™s urine concentrates the antigens (disposed cell walls and cell fragments of offending microbes which the immune system has successfully eliminated). By passing the clientâ€™s urine through a micropore filter and injecting it i.m, the lymphocytes on patrol in the connective tissue are brought in contact with the antigen and quickly mount a specific and appropriate immune response. We use 2 ml of filtered urine once weekly for 12 weeks. All other similar approaches (autohemotherapy, homeopathic autonosodes, manipulating the immune system with supplements) are far less effective.
C: Autoimmunity â€“ the toxins and microbes often act as haptens â€“ marking the cell, cellwall or tissue in which they are hiding as foreign and therefore for destruction . This happens especially against a back drop of pre existing heavy metal toxicity, which has to be addressed aggressively and prior to treating the microbes themselves. We use the MELISA test (memory lymphocyte immune-stimulation assay) to establish which metals the patient is reactive to. The same lab in Bremen, Germany also offers the most sensitive Bb test. The KMT microcurrent technology is very effective in recognition entrainment, helping the immune cells to mount a specific and targeted attack on the invaders, sparing the bodyâ€™s own tissues. It breaks through one of the prime mechanisms the offending germs are using: molecular mimicry (the pathogens present antigens on their surface that are indistinguishable from a normal body tissue).
The technique also breaks another trick the spirochetes have developed: the molecular interaction that occurs between a specific Lyme virulence factor (OspE) and a host protein fH (factor H).
The novice in the field tends to treat component #1 only. We have only rarely observed lasting improvement when course after course of antibiotics was given. Because of the defense mechanisms inherent in the Bb and co-infections, current wisdom suggests that 18 months of antibiotics would be curative in many cases (25). We have observed severe, lasting and unacceptable side effects from this approach (such as tinnitus, kidney failure, intractable immune system breakdown and others). By using the synergistic effect between treatment-modalities which simultaneously address the 3 issues outlined above, lasting improvements are the norm rather than the exception. By using the synergy principle and abandoning the arrogant idea of being able to eradicate all of the microbes in the system â€œfor goodâ€, chronic Lyme patients can often live a normal healthy life again.
The Mineral Issue
To feed, fuel and perk up the cells of the immune system (especially NK cells and macrophages) numerous interventions have been tried, mostly based on orthomolecular and herbal medicine principles. We found that amongst those approaches, abundant mineral substitution based on the red cell mineral analysis is most rewarding. Rarely medical drugs should be used.
Amazingly, the most depleted minerals in our Lyme patients are often copper, magnesium, manganese ( in Lyme) and iron (in Babesiosis). Bb and Bartonella need magnesium to duplicate and deplete the hostâ€™s body rapidly. Copper and iron have all but disappeared from most of our supplements based on faulty interpretation of hair analysis. The immune system uses those 2 metals in the process of phagocytosis. They are the main constituent of the enzymes (or â€œbulletsâ€) the immune cells use in the battle against the invaders. Oxidized used-up iron and copper get displaced into the extracellular compartment and body fluids and appears in the hair and skin, as the bodyâ€™s most efficient way of excreting toxins without hurting the kidneys. This has led to the dangerous and in its consequence catastrophic assumption, that these metals are the enemy and need to be restricted. It is true, that oxidized metals pose a danger and have to be reduced (=substitution of electrons) or eliminated. However, when copper and iron are needed and substituted appropriately, major improvements have been observed. Appropriate antioxidant treatment can reduce these metals. Homeopathic copper and iron will lead to beneficial redistribution of these metals and makes them bio-available again.
Lithium-orotate or aspartate in low doses (15 mg/day) has been shown to protect CNS structures from neurotoxin damage. Patients almost always benefit clinically from frequent treatment with parenteral magnesium. It is most meaningfully given in a modified Meyerâ€™s cocktail, where we use a 5:2 ratio of folic acid (not folinic) and hydroxycobolamine (not methyl- or cyano-). Hydroxycobolamine is given i.m at the same time as the i.v.injection of the cocktail.
Many Lyme patientâ€™s suffer from Pyrroluria, a metabolic illness where abnormal porphyrins carry out significant amounts of needed zinc and vitamin B6. Diagnosis is made with the appropriate test at the Pfeiffer institute in Chicago. Even though it is assumed that this illness is hereditary I have my doubts, since most Lyme sufferers have a degree of it. I suspect that the appearance of kryptopyrroles in the urine is induced by the illness. However, I am carefull with excessive substitution of zinc. Zinc has a synergistic effect with mercury in the brain and also promotes the growth of the herpes viruses.
If clients show abnormal high losses of sex steroid hormones in the urine, the patient may be cobalt deficient. The urine hormone test and cobalt drops are available at the Tahoma clinic Renton, Wa. For a while selenium should be given in high doses to suppress viral replication and render bioavailable mercury non-reactive.
The element most critical in the Lyme patient however is iodine. A 2 inch square of Lugolâ€™s iodine is painted on the patients skin and should remain visible for 24 hours. The sooner it is absorbed the more deficient the patient. An oral form of Lugolâ€™s is available under the name Iodoral (Optimox, Torrance, Ca).
Filling up the bodyâ€™s mineral reserves has always been the most essential part of our heavy metal detox program. It is also the most essential part of our Lyme treatment.
There is an inherent order in which the microbes should be treated. If the order is correct, gentle methods work. Treatment should always combine electromagnetic interventions, using specific microbial inhibition frequencies (KMT technology) with the appropriate herb, antibiotic or other antimicrobial strategy. It should also always be combined with a toxin elimination program, good psychotherapy and general life style hygiene (all the stuff, that alternative Medicine stands for).
The Lyme ABC
A. We start with deworming our clients. We often use a simple yet agressive seasalt/Vit C protocol (19) which has an independent effect aginst the spirochetes also. The high salt conmcentration kills large parasites by osmotically induced dehydration (osmotic shock). High salt levels also increase the enzyme elastase which has a strong antimicrobial/anti-spirochete effect (4)
Protocol: 1.5 grams of seasalt per 20 lbs of body weight in 4 divided doses per day for 3 weeks. With each dose also give 1-4 gms of Vit C (dose has to be just below bowel tolerance). Three 3-6-week cycles with a 2 week break inbetween. The BP should be monitored and not elevate outside acceptable levels. 5 % of the population are salt sensitive and react with a significantly increased blood pressure. In the off weeks we give Â½ tsp of sea salt first thing am in a glass of water. Sometimes we enhance the program by using the â€œArise-and-Shineâ€ herbal program. Often I will add in a course of Albendazole or Biltricide. We developed antiparasitic CDs for entrainment of the immune system. The frequencies were obtained by German physicists by taping the sounds of microbes in their respective live activity in an underground lab which was soundproof and electromagnetically completely shielded (6).
B. the next step is the treatment of giardia, entamoeba histolytica and trichomonas, which most often are overlooked. Lab detection of large parasites in most US labs is hopeless. Amoeba and giardia trophozoites can only be detected in a fresh stool for about 20 minutes. None of the labs available to us comply with this necessity. The detection rate is so substandard that only ART testing, a therapeutic trial or abdominal palpation by an experienced practitioner are capable of establishing the diagnosis. Protocol: organic freeze dried garlic ( 14 ) treats all of the above astoundingly successfully. Sometimes we add Tinidazole 500 mg bid for 10 days always followed by long term garlic therapy (3 caps tid after meals).
C. Next we attend to the chronic strep infections, which often coexist with the herpes viruses. No other treatment has been as successful as Pleo Not (penicillum notatum) from Pleomorphic-Sanum followed by a 6 month course of Pleo Sancom (antidotes for aspergillus niger and mucor racemosus). We always look at the tonsils: if they are scarred with crypts, or lymph tissue has regrown since the tonsillectomy (â€œtonsillar tagsâ€), surgical intervention is needed. Otherwise these patients (which are most of them) never get well. We recommend a procedure developed by Dr. Sergej Dorochov, MD, PhD called â€œregenerative cryotherapyâ€ ( 20 ). It involves freezing the surfaces of all lymphatic tissue of the head/neck region which creates a barrage of growth factor and cytokine responses, that often lead to dramatic improvements in our Lyme patients. Lymph drainage using the KMT technology has been superb in speeding the healing of the sinus/head/neck/region.
D. the next step is the treatment of Babesia . There are now at least 17 subtypes of this intracellular Malaria-like organism. Eye, brain and dental symptoms are most often caused by this mean microbe.
Protocol: Frequency #2 in the KMT 22 TENS unit inhibits the metabolic activity of Babesia and is used 3 times weekly.
I also use Artemisinin, 2 cap 2times/day. 3 weeks on, 1 week off. Always with Â½ glass of grapefruit juice. 3 cycles. Watch iron levels! Artemisinin provokes the intestinal wall to secrete an enzyme which destroys the medication before it can be absorbed. This process builds up over 3 weeks. After a one week pause the enzyme has disappeared and takes another 3 weeks to reemerge. Grapefruit juice prevents formation of this enzyme. Alternatives are the Swiss Malaria drug Riamet (1 course) which is very well tolerated and Mepron, which is forbiddingly expensive.
Taurox 6X, a sophisticated designer compound marketed as a homeopathic remedy, is very effective in treating the associated fatigue, eye symptoms and erratic emotional behaviour. It has an independent immune system regulating effect.
E. The next step is to start the client on a systemic antiviral treatment. I use the ayurvedic herb cocktail – Indian Gooseberry, Chebulic and Beleric myrobalan ( 14 ) , which has given the most profound and lasting effect on the viruses of the herpes family, which flourish in the immune suppressed Lyme patient. The Japanese mushroom extracts have also been helpful. . I also like the North American product â€œPro Boostâ€ (thymus extract) to help awaken the cellular immune system.
Olive leaf, virox and other chaparral- derivatives have been disappointing. The insomnia of Lyme disease is often herpes viral in nature (EBV, VZ or HSV 1, HSV II). As a diagnostic trial I often use 1000 mg of the medical antiviral drug Valtrex at bedtime. If there is a dramatic improvement, herbal antiviral treatment has to be considered for a long time. We have designed an antiviral program for the KMT instruments (frequency #4) and an anti viral CD, which s played through a walk man or regular sound system at low volume 3 times/week. This has been extremely effective. Zinc fosters the growth of HSV I and II, copper and selenium inhibit it.
F. Simultaneously I address the fungal/yeast component which is most often present, especially if clients had prior antibiotic treatment. Fungi and viruses seem to support each other in yet unknown ways. I use both the antifungal CD and the KMT TENS-frequencies in program #4 which contains all known anti-yeast and anti-mold frequencies ( 6 ). With ART technology we could show that the most successful and well tolerated antifungal is either the drug amphotericin B (250 mg bid) or the combination of organic freeze dried garlic and oil of oregano. Substitution with effective microbes is important. We use â€œMatrix Floraâ€ ( 14 ) which contains over 80 lesser known beneficial microbes. Every patient is also on a more traditional acidophilus/bifidus/FOS product. Eating a low carb diet is often a must. We monitor the fasting insulin level. If it is low, we are ok. If it is high, we restrict the carbs. Do not restrict the carbs if it is not necessary. We have seen dangerous mistakes in this field. Metabolic typing is a safeguard, but time consuming to do at home, especially if you are very ill. I use the â€œdiet therapy softwareâ€ (21) for a rapid and profound diet evaluation and recommendation. Most successful is the ART food sensitivity test for every single item in the clientâ€™s diet (6). It may take 15 minutes, is more sensitive then the ELISA, MELISA and other lab tests – and it does not incur lab fees (6). The rotation diet by Sally Rockwell prevents relapses.
G. Mycoplasma responds well to enzymes, when it is treated in sequence with the other microbes as outlined here. The most effective strategy is the German product Rechtsregulat (14). This simple drink has been extremely effective in eradicating mycoplasma and other cell wall deficient microbes. It also has a heparin like anti-fibrin effect that surpasses injected heparin by far. It has just like heparin, a strong biological effect against Babesia as well. Dosage: 1 tbs/2 times per day. The KMT program #4 is designed for treatment of mycoplasma (6).
H. The spirochetes and their close relatives ( Bartonella, Rickettsia, Ehrlichiosis, Brucella abortis) are best treated last – with antimicrobial herbs or antibiotics., 1 tsp bid. We use an alternating course of teasel root tincture (15 drops 3 times per day) for 6 weeks and then TOS free catâ€™s claw tincture (10 drops tid). We also use Echinacea root tincture , 2 dropperfull 3 times/day. Organic freeze dried garlic sometimes has a profound effect on the spirochetes. Many other herbs have enormous potential in the treatment of chronic Lyme disease.
Frequency #1 in the KMT TENS unit inhibits the microbial growth of spirochetes and Bartonella, simultaneously activates specific immune responses and aids the uptake of antimicrobial herbs.
Injected bee venom has long been my favorite during this phase of the treatment (22, 23). The peptide mellitin has strong antibiotic activity against all spirochetes (24). Bee venom also contains nerve growth factor, the very substance needed for healing, when everything else has been attended to.
For the psychiatric presentations of Lyme disease I use large doses of Niacin. Niacinamide and no-flush Niacin do not work. 3-6 gms in 3-4 divided doses often show amazing results. It appears that Niacin has tremendous antibiotic potential against all types of Borrelia (12). I suspect that our mentor and genius in orthomolecular psychiatry, Abraham Hoffer, MD discovered a treatment for Bb long before Lyme-disease was known.
The current antibiotic protocols are discussed and listed elsewhere (10). My favorites include Zithromax and Minocycline (both work symbiotically by binding to separate regions of the bacterial 50s ribosomal nucleic acid and both inhibit the microbes from taking part in protein transcription). I also use Rifampin.
Often patients develop sarcoidosis, which is rarely recognized (11). The Lyme infected lymph nodes produce abnormal amounts of 1.25 di-hydroxy vitamin D. The client often develops marked osteoporosis (most often in the spine) along with other more typical Lyme symptoms. The blood test (1.25 di-OH vit D) will usually reveal the pathology (levels over 45), necessitating therapy with the Trevor Marshall protocol (18). It uses antibiotics together with the angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan â€“medoxomil. By adding the KMT lymphdrainage technology twice/week results are often rapid and miraculous. We hope to find alternatives to the antibiotic regimen in the near future.
When the sequence outlined here is observed, few people have severe Herxheimer reactions, which are the rule in other approaches.
Most clients will need some support for several years, before they have found and adapted to a new life style in which the symptoms are absent. Lyme disease is marked by cyclic rhythms and unexpected returns of the symptom from time to time. Once a patient has figured out what works for him or her best, most of my patients learn how to manage the illness with very little help – on their own, living normal healthy lives worth living. In the course of conquering the illness there has been a lot of personal growth and a lot of learning. Many treatment modalities have been surprisingly ineffective: ozone, hyperbaric oxygen, ICHT (intracellular hyperthermia) and many others. Some treatments have been unexpectedly effective: dental splints, colortherapy, Tomatis therapy and neurosensory stimulation, elevating the body temperature with T3 supplementation, regular bee venom injections, tonsillectomies and cryotherapy and many others. After 15 years of dealing consciously with this illness, Lyme disease is still a mystery to me. Currently its impact outweighs other important issues like heavy metal toxicity, unresolved psychological issues and nutritional deficiencies.
There has been much speculation, why Lyme disease seems to be increasingly common. The book â€œLab 257â€is an investigative report on the issues involved. The insects which are the vectors for these microbes thrive in warmer climates. I have no doubt, that to a large degree the greenhouse effect is responsible and will be confronting us with the onslaught of more and more aggressive microbes. The partial pressure of oxygen on the earth at sea level has decreased from 30% 150 years ago to 19% today. The oxygen producing algae in the oceans are dying.
The response of the public health system so far has been denial and anger towards those who try to uncover the puzzle and help the afflicted patients. This will certainly change in the near future. I expect that by the time the institutions discover Lyme disease as a far more important factor in chronic illness then currently acknowledged, we will be confronted with new, far more dangerous microbes. Antibiotics have disappointed in the treatment of Lyme disease as a single modality. Antibiotics alone will not help us to cope with the coming plagues.
All of us â€œalternativeâ€ practitioners have to start looking beyond antibiotics for help and for hope. The microbes have always been with us. They are not the enemy. It is us who have altered the environment so severely and in a way which facilitates the growth of lower evolved species like cell wall deficient microbes and viruses – and ends the life for many more evolved species. Extinction may be forever.
Lyme disease is a messenger. If we donâ€™t change, someday not too far from now we may be on the endangered species list.
1. Borrelia burgdorferi group: in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity: Orv Hetil, 2002 May 26; 143(21): 1195-8 (article in Hungarian), JP Henneberg, U Neubert â€“department of dermatology, Ludwig-Maximillian University, Munich, Germany
2. Erythema chronicum migrans (Afzelii) associated with mosquito bite: acta Derm Venereol (Stockholm) 46, 473-476
3. Personal experience while doing a residency rotation in neurology at the Albert Ludwig-University, Freiburg, Germany under Prof.Faust (1976)
7. www.vcu.edu/ Journal of Immunology Dec 2004
8. The etiologic agent of Lyme disease in deer flies, horse flies and mosquitoes
J Infect Dis 154 (1986), 355-358, LA Magnarelli, JF Anderson, AG Barbour
9. Klinik der Lyme-Borreliose: Hans Huber Verlag, Bern, CH (2002).
39-40, Norbert Satz
11. Borrelia Burgdorferi infection may be the cause of sarcoidosis
Hua B, Li QD: Chin Med J (Engl) 1992 Jul; 105(7): 560-3
14. www.biopureUS.com also: email@example.com
15. www.neuraltherapy.com applied neurobiology (APN) manual/video
16. www.neuraltherapy.com neuraltherapy papers
17.www.neuraltherapy.com Klinghardt Matrix Therapy (KMT) manual/video
22. Bee Venom Therapy for Chronic Pain: D Klinghardt, J. of Neurol and Orthop. Med and Surg., Vol. 11, Issue 9, Oct 1990, pp. 195-197
23. www.mercola.com : The Treatment of Lyme Disease with Bee Venom: D Klinghardt, M.D., Ph.D., 1999
24. Bee Stings as Lyme Inhibitor: L. L. Lubke and C. F. Garon, J. Clin. Infect. Diseases, July 1997, 25 Suppl. 1, pp. 48-51
25. Lyme disease, potential plague of the 21st century: R Bradford and H Allen, Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, Jan 2005, 70-79
There is a “strong probability” the foot-and-mouth outbreak began at a research site, inspectors have said.
But either the private company Merial, or the state-run Institute for Animal Health, both based at the Pirbright site, could be the source…
The Health and Safety Executive have published their Initial Report of potential breaches to bio-security at the Pirbright Site 2007. The Environment Secretary, Hilary Benn, has made a statement in response to the HSE initial report.
From Here :
Production of vaccine it seems, will be carried out at the Merial laboratory,
However, there is nothing more obvious than Foot and Mouth Disease.
Imagine the “minor” transgressions that have occurred on a global scale over the past 50 years.
A Statement from W. John Martin
Society is failing to address the serious deterioration in its health. Epidemics of chronic illnesses are now rampant. Whether autism or chronic fatigue; cancer or mental illnesses; our Government is embarrassingly quiet about potential infectious causes. Exploring this issue will be an affront to the pharmaceutical industry’s self-image of only ever doing good with their vaccination programs. Moreover, our leaders argue, they can not deal with infections that they do not understand.
There is an answer, for there is now a real possibility of effective therapy. The clues have come from organic farmers, old style traditional healers, and some of the prominent pioneers of alternative medicine. Coupled with research findings on stealth-adapted viruses, the promise of therapy clearly lies within the realm of energy medicine.
The research has shown that cells can utilize alternative cellular energy pigments which can capture physical energy from our environment and convert it into metabolic energy. At least in the test tube, the ACE-pigments energized cells can overcome the damaging effects of a viral infection. Nature has provided the building blocks for ACE-pigments, as well as various comparable products. Some of these materials already have the reputation of being able to relieve symptoms attributed to chronic stealth virus infections. These compounds now need to be tested in rigorously controlled double blind clinical studies.
The compositions and formulations of some of the more promising products are being guarded by individuals intent on profiting from what they each believe to be unique and unmatched. An unwillingness to share will surely deny these individuals a legacy far more valuable that money could provide.
Some products are being touted as being homeopathic so as to avoid FDA oversight, or as immune stimulants, as if this system provided all of the answers to infectious diseases. Rather, it appears that they have a unifying mode of action of providing an alternative energy source.
Fortunately, I have come to know a hand full of impressive individuals who will succeed by doing what is right. Their own particular products can be tested individually, and then in various combinations. This is the way to go.
Will there be funding? Not to our group if it has the strings of bypassing FDA, gauging those who are sick, or limiting access to the rich and powerful. Unfortunately, we live in a selfish, money-driven society. Doing what is right has become synonymous with doing what will generate more and more income.
Making a significant difference or addressing a pressing need in society is of lesser importance to many of those that I have encountered. Let them have it their way, we can do better.
I am optimistic that our evolving team will generate early successes that will propel this program into a National movement. The end of the stealth-virus epidemic is in sight, and the rebirth of energy based medicine is at hand.
Deer tick with cruel bite
Walkers at risk of a menace in the undergrowth.
Essentially the following atrophic and sclerosing (sclerodermatous) disorders can be included:
Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA)
Scleroderma with generalized plaque lesions
Atrophoderma profundum (Pierini-Pasini)
Parry-Romberg progressive facial hemiatrophy
Shulman’s syndrome (Eosinophilic fasciitis)
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multisystemic infectious disease involving the skin, joints, nervous system, heart, and eyes. Today at least three subtypes pathogenic for humans have been identified: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garini, Borrelia afzelii. Different genospecies strains of Borrelia have been associated with different clinical manifestations. LB is classically described as having three clinical stages or, similarly to syphilis, an early phase and a late one. The early infection corresponds to the first stage, the late infection includes the second and the third stages. LB skin manifestations could be divided into five classes. Erythema migrans, lymphadenosis benigna cutis, and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans are proven skin manifestations of LB. Lichen sclerosus et athrophicus, morphea, scleroderma, scleredema Buschke, atrophodermia of Pierini and Pasini, Parry-Romberg progressive facial hemiatrophy, and Shulman fasciitis are controversial LB manifestations. Granuloma annulare, atypical persistent pityriasis rosea, and pityriasis lichenoides are skin lesions occasionally related to LB. Urticaria, erythema nodosum, and papular acrodermatitis (Giannotti Crosti disease) are reactive LB skin manifestations. Nodular panniculitis (Pfeifer-Weber-Christian), B-cell cutaneous lymphoma, and juvenile chronic myeloid leukemia are exceptional skin manifestations of LB.
Probably Morphea can be caused sometimes by Borrelia afzelii.
The use of local isolates in Western blots improves serological diagnosis of Lyme disease in Scotland.Mavin S, Milner RM, Evans R, Chatterton JM, Joss AW, Ho-Yen DO.
Microbiology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Old Perth Road, Inverness IV2 3UJ, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Nine Scottish Borrelia burgdorferi isolates were investigated in IgG Western blot tests. Sera previously found to be positive and negative when tested by routine Western blots prepared from reference strain B. burgdorferi sensu stricto antigen had different outcomes with these isolates. Two isolates, E5 (Borrelia afzelii) and G4 (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto) performed well, reproducing Western blot-positive results in 90 and 95% of tests, respectively. When antigens from both isolates were incorporated into a single IgG Western blot, the results of a panel of sera were improved when compared to the routine reference strain IgG Western blot. All of the sera positive by the routine Western blot remained positive using the Scottish isolate antigen mix. Twenty-three of the 25 negative sera remained negative and two produced an equivocal result. Of the 15 samples that tested IgG Western blot equivocal with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto reference strain, 11 (73%) became weak or strong positive when tested with the B. afzelii/B. burgdorferi sensu stricto antigen mix (chi(2)=14.35, Yates’ correction, P<0.001). In seven of these, a clinical picture of Lyme disease was consistent with the new results. The use of Scottish strains of B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto to provide antigen for the IgG Western blot improves the diagnosis of Lyme disease for patients in Scotland.
Cabello FC, Godfrey HP, Newman SA.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.
Borrelia burgdorferi, the tick-transmitted etiologic agent of Lyme borreliosis, can colonize and persist in multiple tissue sites despite vigorous host immune responses. The extracellular matrix appears to provide a protective niche for the spirochete. Recent studies in mice suggest that B. burgdorferi interacts in various ways with collagen and its associated molecules, exploiting molecular and structural features to establish microcolonial refugia. Better knowledge of the genetic and structural bases for these interactions of B. burgdorferi with the extracellular matrix will be required before an understanding of the persistence of B. burgdorferi in the tissues and development of chronic infections can be achieved.
UK Borreliosis – sign the online petition here
Diagnosis of active Lyme Borreliosis (LB) remains a challenge, but this article describes a new test.
Headaches and Severe Rash…..the article also suggests that wi-fi waves may help break the blood brain barrier, causing other serious health problems.
From :The Ecologist
Is Morgellons Syndrome another manifestation of Lyme Borreliosis ?
The images at LymePhoto’sÂ indicate that the answer to this question is yes.
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